LA Surgery - Midterm

Grade 1-5
1 - Inconsistent
2 - Consistent under certain conditions
3 - Consistent at a trot always
4 - Obvious lameness
5 - Minimal weight bearing or inability to move

How is lameness graded?

Palmar (or plantar) Digital nerve Block (We use the technique shown in A)
Heel

What block is this? What does it block?

Basilar/Abaxial Sesamoid Block
Pastern and foot.

What block is this? What does it block?

Low 4-Point Block
Fetlock, pastern, and foot.

What block is this? What does it block?

High 4-Point Block
Everything below the carpus.

What block is this? What does it block?

Ultrasound.

How do you diagnose an umbilical hernia vs abscess?

<10 cm in diameter
- Manual reduction & irritation BID, abdominal bandage.
- OWNER EDUCATION (hernias 3-7cm in diameter may result in bowel incarceration!)
>10 cm
- Surgery

How do you treat an uncomplicated umbilical hernia?

Emergency laparotomy, +/- intestinal resection, and closure of hernia.

How do you treat a complicated umbilical hernia?

- Antibiotics
- Drain external abscess -> C/S
- May need surgical resection if the foal isn't doing well

How do you treat an umbilical infection?

Healthy foal?
- Keep umbilicus dry and clean
- Prophylactic antibiotics
- Should resolve within 2-7 days
Sick foal?
- Surgical resection of umbilical remnants

How do you treat a patent urachus?

Below the fetlock.
Rear limb -> lateral claw
Forelimb -> medial claw

Where do 80-90% of lameness cases in food animals occur?
Which claw is typically affected if it's a rear limb?
Forelimb?

- FMD
- BVDV
- Salmonellosis
- MCF
- Bluetongue
- Vesicular Stomatitis

Name 6 infectious diseases that can cause lameness in cattle?

Phlegmone = SC (a fever is commonly seen with this one)
Dermatitis = epidermis

What's the difference between Interdigital Phlegmone and Interdigital Dermatitis?

Interdigital = early stage
Digital = interdigital space and the area above the coronary band.

What's the difference between Interdigital Dermatitis and Digital Dermatitis?

- Strawberry lesion (erosive/reactive)
- Proliferative lesion (wart-like)

What are the two types of lesions associated with Digital Dermatitis?

1. >1500 pounds
2. Lateral hind claw affected
3. Medial front claw affected

What three things could make a bovine a poor candidate for digit amputation?

Surpass (Diclofenac)

Which NSAID is both a SMOAD and a DMOAD for arthritis?

- Bethamethasone
- Triamcinolone

Which two corticosteroids are both SMOAD and a DMOAD?

Struvites
Calcium Carbonate

Which type of urinary stone has the best prognosis in food animals?
Worst?

- Sigmoid flexure
- Distal penile urethra
- Urethral process

What are the three most common areas for urolithiasis in food animals?

Struvites.

Which type of urolith is caused by concentrated feed and dissolves in acid?

Drain it INTO the preputial cavity.

What do you need to remember when draining a preputial abscess?

3-5 days post-injury

When is the best time for a penile hematoma to get fixed surgically?

Fibropapilloma

What's the most common penile tumor in bulls?