19th century


Agricultural Revolution

(mid 1700s- 1800s) the transformation of agriculture from traditional medieval farming to more productive, efficient, and mechanical methods of farming through scientific innovation and new techniques


a black or dark brown rock that burns easily when set on fire


operating well without much waste


a building or set of buildings where products are made by machines

finished/manufactured good

products that are ready to be sold to customers

Great Britain

the main island of the United Kingdom, located off the northwest coast of France and occupied by England, Scotland, and Wales; Great Britain

Industrial Revolution

the period in which the production of goods shifted from hand production methods to complex machines. This period of industrialization resulted in social and economic changes. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain around 1750. The process of


the process of developing manufacturing on a large scale


a new method of addressing a problem


someone who works


the process of making a large number of something


the process of making something more mechanical or automatic by introducing machines


a person who is involved in trade

middle class

a social group between the upper class and working class, usually made up of professional and business workers and their families


the act or business of digging up coal, ore, or other minerals in a mine

natural resource

materials the occur in nature and can be used for economic gain (to make money) like forests, water, fertile land, oil, or coal

raw material

an item (usually a natural resource) used to create manufactured goods

steam engine

a machine that heats water, then uses resulting steam to move machinery. Though other invented the steam engine, James Watt's version of it was popular during the Industrial Revolution.


an amount that goes beyond what is needed


cloth, or woven fabric


having to do with a city


the process of making an area more city-like

working class

a social group lower than the middle class, usually made up of people who earned a living through manual labor and earned a low age


relating to farm areas and life in the country

Enclosure Movement

the process of making common land into private land, owned by a farmer. The land was then fenced in, or enclosed. Sometimes an individual bought the land from a town or the government of the town decided to enclose the common itself.

Common Lands

Prior to the Agricultural Revolution, most western European villages traditionally set aside these fields, accessible to all in the community, to be used as pasture for livestock and for the production of hay

Four crop rotation

An agricultural technique that involves rotating four different crops through a field to prevent soil depletion.