Most visceral reflex (unconscious) sensation and some pain travel in visceral afferent fibers that accompany the _________ fibers retrograde (backward).
Most visceral pain impulses (from the heart and most organs of the peritoneal cavity) travel centrally
What do visceral sensory fibers transmit from hollow organs and blood vessels to the CNS
pain or subconscious visceral reflex sensations (e.g. distention, blood gas, blood pressure)
(most abundant collagen type) - forms large eosinophilic bundles called collagen fibers and often fill connective tissue forming structures such as tendons, organ capsules, and dermis
collagen type that produces a network of reticular fibers, which stain very dark with silver stains; abundant in immune and lymphoid tissues
collagen type (sheet forming collagen) that has subunits produced by epithelial cells and are major structural proteins of external laminae and all epithelial base laminae
collagen type (anchoring collagens) that binds type IV collagen and anchors the basal lamina to the reticular lamina in basement membranes
What are the two methods/ways cancer invades the body?
contiguity (growing into adjacent tissue)
metastasis (dissemination of tumor cells to sites distant from the original or primary tumor)
What are the three ways metastasis occurs?
direct seeding of serous membranes of body cavities
lymphogenous spread (lymphatic vessels)
hematogenous spread (blood vessels)
most common route for the metastasis of the less comon but more aggressively malignant sarcomas (CT cancers)
the most common route for the initial dissemination of carcinomas (epithelial tumors), the most common type of cancer
lymphogenous spread of cancer
watery, largely unstained extracellular material that is more abundant than fiber in some types of connective tissue proper; allows diffusion of small molecules and acts as both a lubricant and a barrier to the penetration of invaders
components of ground susbtance
GAGs (glycosaminoglycans), proteoglycans, and multiadhesive glycoproteins
components of GAGs (glycosaminoglycans) found in ground susbtance
hyaluronic acid, and sulfated GAGs (chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate)
What are two examples of multiadhesive proteins? What do these proteins allow?
allow collagens and integrin proteins to attach to their binding sites, allowing temporary attachments between cells and the ECM
Differentiate the fixed versus migratory cells comprising connective tissue, and
contrast their functions as well as their cellular products.
fixed cells: fibroblasts and adipocytes
migratory cells: macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and mast cells
What are adipose cells
functions /products of adipose cells
specialzied loose CN that incorporates large numbers of adipocytes
insulation, padding, provides source of fuel for metabolic processes, synthesis and storage of lipids
What are plasma cells?
functions/products of plasma cells
mature b-lymphocytes specialized for antibody (Ab) or circulating antibodies or immunoglobulin (Ig) production
What are mast cells?
functions/products of plasma cells
connective tissue cells derived from mesenchymal cells that trigger or maintain inflammatory/immune response
cntain large granules that release: histamine (vasodilator), heparin (blood anticoagulant), cytokines
What are macrophages?
monocyte-derived cells also known as histiocytes; are the most numerous cell type in loose or areolar CT
phagocytic. Engulf and digest matter, bacteria, damaged cells and synthesize/secrete cytokines, GFs
What are fibroblasts?
most common cell type in loose (areolar) CT that functions to synthesize/secrete ECM and fibers
involved in tissue repair and wound healing through synthesis of ground susbtance and ECM fibers
Describe the structure of epithelial cells in the esophagus with their function in the digestive system
nonkeratinized stratified squamous - protection for mechanical friction
Describe the structure of epithelial cells in the esophagogastric junction with their function in the digestive system
simple columnar epithelium invaginating into the lamina propria as many branched tubular glands
Describe the structure of epithelial cells in the submucosa with their function in the digestive system
mucus-secreting esophageal glands that lubricate/protect mucosa
Describe the structure of epithelial cells in the stomach with their function in the digestive system
esophageal cardiac glands which secrete additional mucus
Describe the structure of epithelial cells in the small intestine with their function in the digestive system
simple columnar epithelium (composed of absorptive enterocytes) and goblet cells (protect and lubricate intestinal lining)
What are brunner glands?
bicarbonate secreting cells of submucosa; mucus from these glands is basic which neutralizes chyme entering the duodenum from the pylorus
What are paneth cells?
located in the basal portion of intestinal crypts below the stem cells; exocrine cells with eosinophilic secretory granules
that secrete lysozyme, phospholipase A2, and hydrophobic peptides called defensins
What are Peyer's patches?
Small masses of lymphatic aggregates found throughout the ileum region of the small intestine in lamina propria and submucosa.
Contain M cells that present antigens to immune cells and contain B cells that can differentiate into IgA secreting plasma cells
Describe the structure of epithelial cells in the pancreas with their function in the digestive system
simple columnar epithelium
Explain the anatomical and functional differences of lymphatic vessels
- are located everywhere blood capillaries are found except in the teeth, bone, bone marrow, and the entire CNS
-Reabsorbs fluid, electrolytes, and plasma proteins from tissue cells that fails to get reabsorbed
Explain the anatomical and functional differences of veins and arteries
veins are low-pressure vessels with valves that direct blood to the heart (arteries --> away, no valves) and has a wide lumen (arteries --> narrow)
less muscle and elastic tissue than arteries
Describe the basic organization of the lymphatic circulation (capillaries, vessels, nodes, trunks)
Lymphatic capillary --> lymphatic vessel --> node --> trunk --> duct --> back to venous circulation
Name the regions of the body that convey lymph to the right lymphatic duct and
thoracic duct and explain how this lymph enters the circulation.
The Right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the body's RUQ (right side of the head, neck, and thorax plus the right upper limb)
- Lymph enters the junction of the right internal jugular and right subclavian veins --> Right venous angle
The Thoracic duct dr
What is the modification of the apical surface of an enterocyte?
The lesser omentum is a double layered peritoneal fold that connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and the _______________.
List three types of tissues/structures that are innervated by the autonomic nervous system?
Smooth involuntary muscle, modified cardiac muscle (the intrinsic stimulating and conducting tissues of the heart), and glandular (secretory) cells
Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers stimulate ______________ (contraction or dilation) of the blood vessels.
Identify one structure that is secondarily retroperitoneal.
Ascending colon, Descending colon, pancreas (except the tail), duodenum (except the 1st part)