How do organizations use BI?
To process operational, social and other data to identify patterns, relationships and trends
Project management, Problem solving, Deciding, Informing
What are typical BI applications?
-Identifying Changes in Purchasing Patterns
-Entertainment (Amazon, Netflix, Pandora)
-Just in Time Medical Reporting
What are 3 primary activities in the BI process?
How do organizations use data warehouses and data marts to acquire data?
Most organizations extract operational data for BI processing.
(for a small organization, the extraction may be as simple as an Access Database)
(larger organizations, however, typically create and staff a group of people who manage and run a data warehou
Problems with operational data
-Data not integrated
-Too much data
Data warehouse vs Data marts
-The data warehouse takes data from the data manufactures, cleans and processes the data, and locates the data on the shelves
-A data mart, is a data collection that addresses the needs of a particular department or functional area of the business
How do organizations use reporting applications?
A BI application that inputs data from one or more sources and applies reporting operations to that data to produce business intelligence
Basic reporting operations
Analyzes and ranks customers
-how recently(R) a customer has ordered
-how frequently(F) a customer has ordered
-how much money(M) the customer has spent
Online analytical processing ( OLAP)
Provides the ability to sum, count, average, and perform simple arithmetic operations on groups of data
How do organizations use data mining applications
Application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction
Unsupervised data mining
Create hypothesis after analysis, in order to explain the patterns found. ( cluster analysis)
Supervised data mining
Develop a model prior to analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model
Market Basket Analysis
Unsupervised data mining technique for determining sale patterns
A hierarchical arrangement of criteria that predict a classification or a value
How do organizations use Big Data applications
Describes data collections that are characterized by huge volume, rapid velocity, and great variety
A technique for harnessing the power of thousands of computers working in parallel
An open source program that implements Mapreduce in potentially thousands of computers
What is the role of knowledge management systems
The process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers, and others who need that
-Increase team strength
-Improve process quality
What are expert systems?
Rule based systems that encode human knowledge in the form of IF/THEN rules
What are content management systems?
Information Systems that support the management and delivery of documents including reports
What are the challenges of content management?
-Content databases are huge
-CMS content is dynamic
-Documents do not exist in isolation from each other
-Document contents are perishable
-Content is provided in many languages
What are content management application alternatives?
-Off the shelf
-Public search engine
How do hyper social organizations manage knowledge?
Application of social media and related applications for the management and delivery of organizational knowledge resources
( data based on what people talk about on social media, feedback)
Hyper social KM alternative media
Rich Directory- employee directory that includes name, email, phone, address, organizational structure and expertise
Resistance to knowledge sharing
-Employees can be reluctant to exhibit their ignorance
What are alternative for publishing BI?
Characteristics of BI publishing alternatives
What are two functions of a BI server
What is the goal of information systems security?
Organizations can increase security of their information system by taking away users' freedom to choose their own passwords and forcing them to choose stronger passwords that are stronger for hackers to crack
The IS security threat/loss scenario
Threat, vulnerability, safeguard, result, explanation
What are the sources of threats?
-Human error and mistakes
-Natural Events and Disasters
What types of security loss exists?
-Unauthorized data disclosure
-Incorrect data modification
-Denial of service
-Loss of infrastructure
Goal of information systems security
Get in front of the security problem by making the appropriate tradeoff for your life and business
How big is the computer security problem?
Unknown for sure, but in 2014 it was a record breaking year due to the loss of 1.1 billion personal records in 3,014 security incidents
How should you respond to security threats?
-Takes security seriously
-Create strong passwords
-Use multiple passwords
-Send no valuable data vis email or IM
-Use https at trusted reputable vendors
-Remove high value assets from computers
-Clear browsing history, temporary files and cookies
How should organizations respond to security threats?
What can technical safeguards protect against security threats?
-Identification and authentication
-Design for secure applications
Identification and authentication
The user name identifies the user
The password authenticates the user
Single sign on for multiple systems
Todays operating systems have the capability to authenticate you to networks and other servers
The process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for communication or secure storage
A computing device that prevents unauthorized network access
A broad category of software that includes viruses, spyware and adware
Design for secure applications
Ensure that any information system developed for you and your department includes security as one of the application requirements
How can data safeguards protect against security threats?
They protect databases and other organizational data
How can human safeguards protect against security threats?
-Authorized users follow appropriate procedures for system use and recovery
-Appropriate security procedures should be designed and users should be trained
Human safeguards for employees
-Hiring and Screening
-Dissemination and Enforcement (training)
Human safeguards for non-employees
Require vendors and partners to perform appropriate Screening and security training
-Help Desk Policies
-Activity Log Analysis
-Investigating and learning from security incidents
How should organizations respond to security incidents
-Have an incident response plan as part of the security program
-Periodically practice incident response
What are the functions and the organization of the IS department?
- Plan the use of IS to accomplish organizational goals and strategy
-Manage outsourcing relationships
Manages security for all of the organizations assets
What IS-related job positions exist?
-Chief information officer
How do organizations plan the use of IS?
-Align information systems with organizational strategy: maintain alignment as organization changes
-Communicate IS/IT issues to executive group
-Develop/Enforce IS priorities within the IS department
-Sponsor steering committee
What are the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing?
A company can focus on search, mobile computing, and advertising revenue growth
Outsourcing information systems
Advantageous for customer support and other functions that must be operational 24/7
What are the risks of outsourcing?
-Loss of control
-Benefits outweighed by long term costs
-No easy exit
How are business processes, information systems, and applications differ and relate?
-Business processes, often involve information systems (check inventory, check customer credit, etc)
-Application is the hardware, software and data components
Which development processes are used for which?
-Business process management is used to create new business processes and to manage changes to existing processes
-Systems development life cycle- used to develop both information systems and applications
-Scrum is used to overcome the problems that occur
How do organizations use business process management (BPM)?
Through a network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and flows that interact to accomplish a business function
Why do processes need management?
They are not fixed in stone, they always evolve
-Improve process quality
-Change in technology
-Change in business fundamentals
What are BPM activities?
How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes?
-They are the blueprint for understanding the current process and for designing new versions of processes
-They set the stage for any requirements for information systems and applications that need to be created or adapted
Need for standard business processing notation
Some businesses use different processes which causes confusion
What are the phases in the systems development life cycle?
-Design system components
Define the system
-Define system goals and scope
-Form a project team
-Sources of requirements
-Roles of a prototype
Design system components
-Determine hardware specifications
-Determine program specifications
-Design the database
-Create job definitions
-Build system components
-Conduct unit test
-Conduct integrated test
-Convert to new system
-Record requests for change
What are the keys for successful SDLC projects?
-Create a work breakdown structure
-Estimate time and costs
-Create a project plan
-Adjust the plan via tradeoffs
-Manage development challenges
Create a work breakdown structure
Break the project into smaller and smaller tasks until each task is small enough to estimate and manage
Estimate time and costs
Must be estimated using different methods
Create a project plan
Use a critical path plan on applications like Microsoft projects
Adjust the plan via trade-offs
Time and total cost
Manage development challenges
-Diseconomies of scale
How can scrum over the problems of the SDLC?
-The nature of SDLC denies what every experienced developer knows to be true
-SDLC is falling out of favor because it is very risky
What are the principles of agile development methodologies?
-Expect, even welcome changes in requirements
-Frequently deliver working version of the project
-Work closely with customer for the duration
-Design as you go
-Test as you go
-Team knows best how its doing/how to change
-Can be used for business processe
What is the scrum process?
-Requirements list drives process
-Each work period (different tasks)
-Rinse and repeat
-Three principles rule
How do requirements drive the scrum process?
-Requirements are specified in a particular manner
-Creating requirements tasks
-Committing to finishing tasks