CIS 2010 Exam 3

How do organizations use BI?

To process operational, social and other data to identify patterns, relationships and trends
Project management, Problem solving, Deciding, Informing

What are typical BI applications?

-Identifying Changes in Purchasing Patterns
-Entertainment (Amazon, Netflix, Pandora)
-Just in Time Medical Reporting

What are 3 primary activities in the BI process?

-Acquire data
-Perform analysis
-Publish Results

How do organizations use data warehouses and data marts to acquire data?

Most organizations extract operational data for BI processing.
(for a small organization, the extraction may be as simple as an Access Database)
(larger organizations, however, typically create and staff a group of people who manage and run a data warehou

Problems with operational data

-Dirty Data
-Missing Values
-Inconsistent Data
-Data not integrated
-Wrong granularity
-Too much data

Data warehouse vs Data marts

-The data warehouse takes data from the data manufactures, cleans and processes the data, and locates the data on the shelves
-A data mart, is a data collection that addresses the needs of a particular department or functional area of the business

How do organizations use reporting applications?

A BI application that inputs data from one or more sources and applies reporting operations to that data to produce business intelligence

Basic reporting operations


RFM Analysis

Analyzes and ranks customers
-how recently(R) a customer has ordered
-how frequently(F) a customer has ordered
-how much money(M) the customer has spent

Online analytical processing ( OLAP)

Provides the ability to sum, count, average, and perform simple arithmetic operations on groups of data

How do organizations use data mining applications

Application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction

Unsupervised data mining

Create hypothesis after analysis, in order to explain the patterns found. ( cluster analysis)

Supervised data mining

Develop a model prior to analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model

Market Basket Analysis

Unsupervised data mining technique for determining sale patterns

Decision Trees

A hierarchical arrangement of criteria that predict a classification or a value

How do organizations use Big Data applications

Describes data collections that are characterized by huge volume, rapid velocity, and great variety

Map reduce

A technique for harnessing the power of thousands of computers working in parallel


An open source program that implements Mapreduce in potentially thousands of computers

What is the role of knowledge management systems

The process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers, and others who need that
-Increase team strength
-Improve process quality

What are expert systems?

Rule based systems that encode human knowledge in the form of IF/THEN rules

What are content management systems?

Information Systems that support the management and delivery of documents including reports

What are the challenges of content management?

-Content databases are huge
-CMS content is dynamic
-Documents do not exist in isolation from each other
-Document contents are perishable
-Content is provided in many languages

What are content management application alternatives?

-In-house custom
-Off the shelf
-Public search engine

How do hyper social organizations manage knowledge?

Application of social media and related applications for the management and delivery of organizational knowledge resources
( data based on what people talk about on social media, feedback)

Hyper social KM alternative media

Rich Directory- employee directory that includes name, email, phone, address, organizational structure and expertise

Resistance to knowledge sharing

-Employees can be reluctant to exhibit their ignorance
-Employee competition

What are alternative for publishing BI?

-Static Reports
-Dynamic Reports

Characteristics of BI publishing alternatives


What are two functions of a BI server


What is the goal of information systems security?

Organizations can increase security of their information system by taking away users' freedom to choose their own passwords and forcing them to choose stronger passwords that are stronger for hackers to crack

The IS security threat/loss scenario

Threat, vulnerability, safeguard, result, explanation

What are the sources of threats?

-Human error and mistakes
-Computer Crime
-Natural Events and Disasters

What types of security loss exists?

-Unauthorized data disclosure
-Incorrect data modification
-Faulty service
-Denial of service
-Loss of infrastructure

Goal of information systems security

Get in front of the security problem by making the appropriate tradeoff for your life and business

How big is the computer security problem?

Unknown for sure, but in 2014 it was a record breaking year due to the loss of 1.1 billion personal records in 3,014 security incidents

How should you respond to security threats?

-Takes security seriously
-Create strong passwords
-Use multiple passwords
-Send no valuable data vis email or IM
-Use https at trusted reputable vendors
-Remove high value assets from computers
-Clear browsing history, temporary files and cookies

How should organizations respond to security threats?

-Security policy
-Risk management

What can technical safeguards protect against security threats?

-Identification and authentication
-Design for secure applications

Identification and authentication

The user name identifies the user
The password authenticates the user

Single sign on for multiple systems

Todays operating systems have the capability to authenticate you to networks and other servers


The process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for communication or secure storage


A computing device that prevents unauthorized network access

Malware protection

A broad category of software that includes viruses, spyware and adware

Design for secure applications

Ensure that any information system developed for you and your department includes security as one of the application requirements

How can data safeguards protect against security threats?

They protect databases and other organizational data

How can human safeguards protect against security threats?

-Authorized users follow appropriate procedures for system use and recovery
-Appropriate security procedures should be designed and users should be trained

Human safeguards for employees

-Position Definitions
-Hiring and Screening
-Dissemination and Enforcement (training)

Human safeguards for non-employees

Require vendors and partners to perform appropriate Screening and security training

Account administration

-Account Management
-Password Management
-Help Desk Policies

Systems procedures

-Normal Operation

Security Monitoring

-Activity Log Analysis
-Security Testing
-Investigating and learning from security incidents

How should organizations respond to security incidents

-Have an incident response plan as part of the security program
-Periodically practice incident response

What are the functions and the organization of the IS department?

- Plan the use of IS to accomplish organizational goals and strategy
-Manage outsourcing relationships

Security Officers

Manages security for all of the organizations assets

What IS-related job positions exist?

-Business analyst
-Technical writer
-Chief information officer

How do organizations plan the use of IS?

-Align information systems with organizational strategy: maintain alignment as organization changes
-Communicate IS/IT issues to executive group
-Develop/Enforce IS priorities within the IS department
-Sponsor steering committee

What are the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing?

A company can focus on search, mobile computing, and advertising revenue growth

Outsourcing information systems

-Management advantages
-Cost Reduction
-Risk reduction

International outsourcing

Advantageous for customer support and other functions that must be operational 24/7

What are the risks of outsourcing?

-Loss of control
-Benefits outweighed by long term costs
-No easy exit

How are business processes, information systems, and applications differ and relate?

-Business processes, often involve information systems (check inventory, check customer credit, etc)
-Application is the hardware, software and data components

Which development processes are used for which?

-Business process management is used to create new business processes and to manage changes to existing processes
-Systems development life cycle- used to develop both information systems and applications
-Scrum is used to overcome the problems that occur

How do organizations use business process management (BPM)?

Through a network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and flows that interact to accomplish a business function

Why do processes need management?

They are not fixed in stone, they always evolve
-Improve process quality
-Change in technology
-Change in business fundamentals

What are BPM activities?

-Implement processes
-Assess results
-Model processes
-Create components

How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes?

-They are the blueprint for understanding the current process and for designing new versions of processes
-They set the stage for any requirements for information systems and applications that need to be created or adapted

Need for standard business processing notation

Some businesses use different processes which causes confusion

What are the phases in the systems development life cycle?

-Define System
-Determine Requirements
-Design system components
-Implement system
-Maintain system

Define the system

-Define system goals and scope
-Assess Feasibility
-Form a project team

Determine requirements

-Sources of requirements
-Roles of a prototype
-Approve requirements

Design system components

-Determine hardware specifications
-Determine program specifications
-Design the database
-Design procedures
-Create job definitions

System implementation

-Build system components
-Conduct unit test
-Integrate components
-Conduct integrated test
-Convert to new system

Maintain system

-Record requests for change
-Prioritize requests
-Fix failures

What are the keys for successful SDLC projects?

-Create a work breakdown structure
-Estimate time and costs
-Create a project plan
-Adjust the plan via tradeoffs
-Manage development challenges

Create a work breakdown structure

Break the project into smaller and smaller tasks until each task is small enough to estimate and manage

Estimate time and costs

Must be estimated using different methods

Create a project plan

Use a critical path plan on applications like Microsoft projects

Adjust the plan via trade-offs

Time and total cost

Manage development challenges

-Diseconomies of scale
-Configuration control
-Unexpected events

How can scrum over the problems of the SDLC?

-The nature of SDLC denies what every experienced developer knows to be true
-SDLC is falling out of favor because it is very risky

What are the principles of agile development methodologies?

-Expect, even welcome changes in requirements
-Frequently deliver working version of the project
-Work closely with customer for the duration
-Design as you go
-Test as you go
-Team knows best how its doing/how to change
-Can be used for business processe

What is the scrum process?

-Requirements list drives process
-Each work period (different tasks)
-Rinse and repeat
-Three principles rule

How do requirements drive the scrum process?

-Requirements are specified in a particular manner
-Creating requirements tasks
-Scheduling tasks
-Committing to finishing tasks