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Diffusion of water across a membrane through the lipid bilayer


Having greater concentration of solute inside than the solution outside. Cell shrinks.


Having a lower concentration of solute inside than the solution outside. Cell Expands.


Having an equal solute concentration inside and outside the cell. Ideal (perfect) conditions. Cell remains normal.


Storage vesicle for water, food, wastes other substances. 1 large vacuole in plants, many small vacuoles in animals.


Controls all cell activities and protein production. Contains the DNA and nucleolus.


Cell liquid in which chemical reactions occur. Holds and cushions the organelles.


Converts glucose into ATP (energy a cell can use) in the process of cellular respiration.

Cell Membrane

A double-layered lipid membrane that surrounds the cell. Regulates what enters and leaves the cell.

Cell Wall

Rigid external layer of a plant cell (cellulose), bacteria (glycoproteins), or fungi (chitin) that is outside the cell membrane.


Converts light energy into glucose in the process of photosynthesis. Contains chlorophyll giving plants their green color.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Passageways where compounds are manufactured, processed, and transported.

Golgi Apparatus/Body/Complex

Collects, modifies, and packages proteins and lipids made by the E.R.


Unicellular. Lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Has ribosomes.


Unicellular or multicellular. Contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Has ribosomes.


The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.


Contains digestive enzymes to breakdown food and wastes. Involved in apoptosis.


Small package of nutrients, proteins, wastes, or water created by the golgi.


The basic unit of all living things. The smallest unit of life.


Synthesizes proteins. Mostly found on the rough E.R. but can also be in the cytoplasm.


Made of a single cell

Cell Division

Cell splitting into two new cells.


Made of more than one cell.

Nuclear membrane/envelope

Surrounds the nucleolus and DNA. Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Synthesizes lipids for use in the cell membrane and other parts of the cell.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Contains most of the cells ribosomes which synthesize proteins.


Little organs" that make up the cell working together for the survival and function of the cell.

Anton von Leeuwenhoek

Inventor of the first microscopes. 1600's.

Robert Hooke

Gave cells their name (cells). 1600's.

Matthias Schleiden

Botatnist (studied plants) who said all plants are made of cells.. Worked on cell theory with Dr. Schwann. 1800's.

Theodore Schwann.

Physiologist (studied animal cells) who said all animals are made of cells. Worked on cell theory with Dr. Schleiden. 1800's.

Cell Theory

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and organization in organisms.
3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells.


Small hairs on a cells surface that wave back and forth allowing the cell to move.


A whip-like structure on a cell that 'whips' back and forth allowing the cell to move (e.g. sperm cell).

Active Transport

Movement of particles from low to high concentration across the membrane that requires energy (ATP).

Passive Transport

Movement of particles from high to low concentration across the membrane (no energy needed).

Facilitated Diffusion

Passive transport through the membrane with the use of protein channels. Some channels are specific while others are not.


Helps align chromosomes during cell division (animal cells only).


Small, thin proteins that help support and give structure to a cell. A cells cytoskeleton.


No energy needed to allow material passage.


Attracted to water.


Repelled by water.

Plant Cell

1 large vacuole.
Cell wall (cellulose)

Animal Cell

Many small vacuoles
Cell membrane only


Makes up the cell membrane. Composed of a phosphate 'head' (hydrophilic) and 2 fatty acid 'tails' (hydrophobic).


Allows some materials (not all) to pass through.

Selective permeability

The ability to decide which particles enter and leave a cell.


Stiff sterol lipid in the cell membrane that provides strength and rigidity.


Taking things in from the surrounding environment by creating a vesicle.


Getting rid of wastes into the surrounding environment by expelling a vesicle.