Art History AP Chapters 2-3 bb definitions


the great audience hall in ancient Persian palaces


a curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge-shaped blocks (vuossoirs) taht transmit the downward pressure laterally.


arch- shaped

blind arcade

an arcade having no actual opneings, applied as decoration to a wall surface


the chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classic temple, the room (greek, naos) in which teh cult statue usually stood


an independent, self-governing city

conceptual representation

the representation of the fundamental distinguishing of a person or object, not the way a figure or object appears in space at a specific moment


Latin, "wedge-shaped". A system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia, in whcih wedge-shaped characters were produced by pressing a stylus into a soft clay tablet, which was then baked or otherwise allowed to harden

cylinder seal

a cylindrical piece of stone, usually about an inch or so in height, decorated with an incised design, so that a raised pattern was left when the seal was rolled over soft clay. In the ancient Near East, documents, storage jars, and other important posses


the use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight


any sculptured or painted band in a building

ground line

in paintings and reliefs, a pianted or carved baseline on which figures appear to stand

heraldic composition

a composition that is symmetrical on either side of a central figure

hierarchy of scale

an artistic convention in which greater size indicates greater importance


in islamic architecture, a vaulted rectangular recess opening into a courtyard


assyrian guardian in the form of a man-headed winged bull


a picture, usually stylized, that represents an idea; also, writing using such means; also painting on rock


one of a series of superimposed bands or friezes in a pictorial narrative or the particular levels on which motifs are placed


a carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events


a needlelike tool used in engraving and incising; also, an ancient writing instrument used to inscribe clay or wax tablets

votive offering

a gift of gratitude to a deity


Ancient Mesopotamian architecture, a monumental platform for a temple


an object worn to ward off evil or to aid the wearer

ashlar masonry

carefully cut and regularly shaped blocks of stone used in construction, fitted together without mortar (used on pyramids of Gizeh)


a male figure that functions as a supporting column

axial plan

the horizontal arrangement of the parts of a building or of the buildings and streets of a city or town, or a drawing or diagram showing such an arrangement. Parts of a building are organized longitudinally; in a central plan, the parts of the structure a


a pyramidal stone; a fetish of the Egyptian god Re

bilateral symmetry

having the same forms on either side of a central axis

block statue

in ancient Egyptian sculpture, a cubic stone image with simplified body parts


a rule, for example, of proportion. Ideal proportions that were used in most Egyptian sculptures and painting

canopic jar

Egypt- the container in which the organs of the deceased were placed for later burial with the mummy


the uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from teh shaft to the lintel. In classical architecture, the form of the capital varies with the order


a female figure that functions as a supporting column


the surface formed by cutting off a corner of a board or post; a bevel


the fenestrated part of a building taht rises above the roofs of the other parts. Egyptian.


a series or row of columns, usually spanned by lintels

engaged column

a half-round column attached to a wall


the front of a building; the other sides when they are emphasized architecturally


ridged columns

fresco secco

painting on limestone plaster after it has already dried. Different than regular frescoes that are painted while still wet because the pigments in the paint are mixed with water and become chemically bound tot eh freshly laid lime plaster


Egyptian system of writing that used symbols and pictures

hypostle hall

a hall with a roof supported by columns


Egyptian- the immortal human life force


bench". An Egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft


Greed, "city of the dead"; a large burial area or cemetary


the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh in ancient Egypt. With the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front


a slate slab used for preparing makeup in Ancient Egypt


wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple; characterized by its sloping walls


small concealed chamber in an Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased


mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human


type of plaster used as a coating on exterior and interior walls

subtractive sculpture

kind of sculpture technique in which materials are taken away from the original mass; carving

sunken relief

a relief where the artist cuts the design deep into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the image itself


Egyptian cobra- emblem of pharaonic kingship