meaning of the word ART
ability, process, product
art can be used to
� Replicate nature
� Create imagined spaces; fantasy or impossible worlds.
� Show reality.
� Air out a culture's dirty laundry. Expose political issues or injustices.
� Express an artist's own personal experiences or feelings
Objects elevated from the commonplace position to a position
Art that is made & assembled from found objects.
Art that utilizes the commonplace objects & visual cliches to make
the viewer more aware and think twice about the symbols and objects that
Visual elements of art
The tools in which an artist chooses to work. Drawing, Painting,
Sculpture, Ceramics, Photography....
Principles of Design
� The simplest and also the most complex of the elements of art.
� Serves as the basic building block for all art.
� There are MANY different ways to make a line; each type of line creates a
different mood or emotion.
� Geometry defines a line as "made up
Expressive qualities of line
� Lines can be perceived as delicate, tentative, forceful, elegant, assertive or
� Lines can be straight, curved, vertical, diagonal, horizontal, zigzagged.
types of lines
� Contour Lines: Created by the edge of things (an object, or figure) The outline.
� Actual Lines: Are connected and continuous.
� Implied Lines: Are connected by the viewer; are not actually present.
� Psychological Lines: A line created by a mental or p
Functions of line
� To outline and shape a form or figure
� As a form
� To create depth & texture
� TO suggest direction and movement
� Modeling: The creation of the illusion of roundness or three-dimensionality
through the use of light & shadow.
� Stippling: The use of a pattern of dots that thicken and thins in value.
� Hatching: Using a series of closely spaced parallel lines to achi
What lines imply
� Horizontal Lines: suggest stability.
� Vertical Lines: defy gravity and suggest assertiveness.
� Diagonal Lines: imply movement and directionality.
� Has many definitions.
� In art "shapes are defined as the areas within a composition that have
boundaries separating them from what surrounds them; shapes make those
� Shape can also be communicated through patches of color and texture.
Actual and Implied mass
� Actual Mass: occupies three-dimensional space and has measurable volume
� Implied Mass: creates the illusion of possessing volume, having weight and
occupying three-dimensional space.
Types of shapes
� Geometric Shapes: are regular and precise. Example: rectangles and circles.
Straight (rectilinear) and Curved (curvilinear)
� Organic Shapes: have a natural appearance. Biomorphic shapes and
� They are said to have a form like a biological entity.
� From the Greek word morphe.
positive and negative shapes
� Positive Shapes: the objects or figures that the viewer focuses on.
� Negative Shapes: the empty space (or the space filled with tother imagery)
left over in the piece.
figure ground terminology
� Figure-ground relationship: the relationship between the positive and negative
shapes in a piece.
� Figure-ground reversal: when the positive and negative shapes in a piec can
be reversed or are ambiguous.
� We tend to perceive things in context.
� The value of a color of a surface is its lightness or darkness.
� Value Contrast: the degrees of difference between shades of gray.
� Drawing objects or figures with a high value contrast makes them easy to
� Value Pattern: describes the variation
� The gradual shifting from light to dark through a successive gradation of
tones across a curved surface.
� This technique became popular during the Renaissance.
Psychological dimensions of color
� Hue: a term for the family of color.
� Cool Colors: colors on the green-blue side of the color wheel.
� Warm Colors: colors on the yellow-orange-red side of the color wheel.
� Saturation: the pureness of color.
� Shades: adding black to a hue.
additive and subtractive color
� Additive Color: mixing light.
� Subtractive Color: mixing pigments.
� Primary Colors: color that can not be derived from the mixing of other colors.
(Red, Yellow, Blue)
� Secondary Colors: created from the overlap or mixing of 2 primary colors.
� In pigments, the primary colors are red, blue and yellow.
� Tertiary Colors: created by mixing pigments or primary and secondary colors.
� Analogous Colors: hues that lie next to each other on the color wheel.
� Complementary Colors:colors that lie acro
local and optical color
� Local Color: the hue of an object as created by the colors its surface reflects
under normal lighting conditions.
� Optical Color: our perceptions of color, which can cary with lighting
� Derived from the Latin word for "weaving"
� Used to describe the surface character of things through the sense of touch.
� An artist can emphasize or distort texture of an object to evoke emotional
response in the viewer.
� Impasto: a thick buildup of p
types of texture
Actual Texture: is tactile, texture you can actually touch & feel. Impasto is a
great example, and most common form of texture in a painting.
� Visual Texture: simulated texture; also called Implied Texture. It looks like a
texture, but can not really be
� Objects exist in 3D space.
� Some art is truly 3D like sculpture and architecture.
� And some art just tries to depict space on a 2D surface.
Relative size and linear preception
� The farther the objects are from us, the smaller the object looks.
� Things that are closer to us look larger and things that are further away look
� Artists use different techniques like relative size and linear perspective to
create the illus
Illusion of DEPTH
� Vanishing Point: The point at which parallel lines come together, or converge.
� Horizon: the line where the sight stops and on which the artist often places
the vanishing point.
� Vantage Point: where or the height the viewer is looking from
� Also called Aerial Perspective.
� Texture Gradient: closer objects are perceived as having rougher or more
� Brightness Gradient: distant objects are less intense.
� Actual Motion: this is art that actually & literally moves, often called Kinetic
� Stopped Time: a style of art that "stops time" in order to imply motion.
� Time Implied & Motion Implied: Some artwork attempts to imply that motion
or time has occurred within the art piece.
op art and after image
� Op Art: Optical Art, is based on creating optical sensations of movement
through the repetition and manipulation of color, shape, and line.
� Afterimage: when we look at a color for a long period of time and then look
away, you may briefly see the oppos
Design or Composition
Design or Composition is a process; the act or organizing the visual elements
to effect a desired aesthetic on a work of art.
unity and variety
Unity & Variety:
� Unity is oneness or wholeness.
� A work of art achieves unity when its parts seem necessary to the
� Variety is using a wide range of components within the composition.
Ways to Achieve Unity & Variety:
� Color Harmony
� Keeping one or more aspects of the work constant
Types of Unity
� Visual Unity-artwork that is unified by color, shape, composition or some
other visual design principle.
� Conceptual Unity-artwork that has a common theme or concept throughout
� Involves using content or meaning to unify the composition.
types of balance
� Actual Balance-means that the piece of art is literally balanced. It can stand
upright on its own.
� Pictorial Balance-refers to the distribution of the apparent or visual weight of
the elements in works that are two dimensional.
� Symmetry-refers to a similarity of form or arrangement on either side of a
dividing line or plane.
� Symmetrical Balance-the whole of the work has a symmetrical feeling.
� Asymmetrical Balance-when the variations to the right and left side of the
� When the right & left sides of a composition bear visibly different shapes,
colors, textures or other elements and yet they are arranged or "weighted" in
such a way that the work feels balanced.
� We tend to respond and feel most comfortable when things
horizontal, vertical and radial balance
� Horizontal Balance-elements on the left & right side of the composition seem
to be about equal.
� Vertical Balance-the elements at the top & bottom of the composition are in
� Diagonal Balance-the elements on either side of a diagonal line divi
how to create a focal point
� Accentuating certain shapes
� Intensifying color
� Using directional line
� Strategical placing objects & images
� Bu isolating an object or subject
Rhythm also called Regular Repetition-orderly progressions
� Rhythm can move a viewer visually as well as emotionally.
� Repetitive pattern can be used to lead the eye over the landscape of the
� Rhythm is found in some sound, nature, architecture a
� Used as a way of indicating importance
� Bigger=more important
� Commonly used in Ancient and Medieval Art.
� Still is being used today; consider family photos. Often the father is standing
with the wife slightly lower (in height) and the children seate
� The Cannon of Proportions-a set of rules about the parts ad their dimensions
relative to one another that became the standard for creating the ideal figure.
� Golden Mean or Golden Section-A mathematical approach to image
organization developed in Ancie
� Style-the handling of distinctive elements & particular media throughout the
various artistic periods associated with the work of an individual artist, a
school or movement, of a specific culture or time period.
� Artists will often work in various styl
art, culture, and context
� Remember-Context has a profound influence on style.
� Variations in style are sometimes linked to the following:
� The use of different media (materials used to make art)
� Diverse cultural contexts.
� Characteristic approach of the artist to the subjec
� realism-is the portrayal of people & things as they are seen by the eye or as
they are thought to be without idealization, without distortion.
� Realism- (with the Capital R) also defines a specific school of art that flowered
during the mid-nineteenth
� Representational Art- presents natural objects in a recognizable manner,
although not a realistic form.
� Also called Figurative Art which defines art that portrays, however altered or
distorted, things perceived art in the visible world.
� Note the dif
abstract and non objective
� Abstract- art that departs significantly from the actual appearance of things.
Extracting the essence of an object or figure. There are degrees of
� NonObjective also called NonRepresentational- art that makes no reference
to nature or real
� Form- includes elements design principles and composition of a work of art.
This might include:
� The use of color, texture, shape, illusion of three dimensions, balance, rhythm,
and unity of overall design.
� Formal criticism involves the elements and
� Content- the underlying meanings or themes involved in a work of art.
� Artists will use the elements & principles of design (the FORMAL aspects) to
inform the content or meaning of a work of art.
� Every work of art has a meaning or message, regardless
� Iconography- the study of the themes & symbols in visual art a/works of art.
� Winter is a common symbol of death & aloneness
� Fall is a common symbol of harvest & decline
� Clocks are a common symbol for time & immortality
� Understanding iconography