What are 2 things that determine a person's blood type?
1. Antibodies found in plasma
2. Biomolecules found on the surface of RBC (surface antigens)
Antibodies are also called ______________
What provides RBC's with the characteristics of specificity?
Plasma antibodies and surface antigens
Enzymes are compatible with ____________
What happens to one's blood when they are given the wrong blood type?
Agglutination or clumping of the blood
What type of antibodies does those with type A blood have?
What type of antibodies does those with type B blood have?
What type of antibodies does those with type AB blood have?
What type of antibodies does those with type O blood have?
Anti A and B
What type of antigen does those with type A blood have?
What type of antigen does those with type B blood have?
What type of antigen does those with type AB blood have?
A and B antigens
What type of antigen does those with type O blood have?
Can a person with type A blood donate to a person with type B blood?
Can a person with type A blood donate to a person with type AB blood?
Be able to do a genetic cross using blood types
When performing a genetic cross, we can represent O with a ___________
Lower case i
What works together to circulate blood, nutrients and oxygen throughout the body?
Heart and blood vessels
The heart's contractions and rhythm is initiated by the _____________
Sinoatrial node (SA node)
The SA node passes the signal to the ____________
Atrioventricular node (AV node)
What part of the heart makes modifications to the heart's contractions and rhythm?
The cardiovascular system is innervated by nerves arising from the ___________
The heart is innervated by __________________ nerve fibers
Parasympathetic and sympathetic
What nerve innervates the AV node?
What nerve innervates the SA node?
______________________ nerve fibers innervate both the AV and SA node
Parasympathetic nerve fibers
What part of the brain controls the flow of blood through the cardiovascular system?
What nerve fibers increase heart rate and contractility?
Sympathetic nerve fibers
What nerve fibers decreases heart rate?
What center increases heart rate?
What center decreases heart rate?
What is mediated by adrenergic receptors?
Cardioacceletory center; sympathetic nerve fibers
Adrenergic receptors receive ______________
What is mediated by muscarinic receptors?
Cardioinhibitory center; parasympathetic fibers
What type of receptors receives Ach?
What is considered one cardiac cycle?
Beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next
What are the 4 stages of the cardia cycle?
What happens during ventricular filling?
Ventricles fill with blood; ventricles are at rest
What happens during isovolumetric contraction?
Ventricles contract but do not eject blood
What happens during ventricular ejection?
Ventricles eject blood through the atrioventricular valves
What happens during isovolumetric relaxation?
The heartbeat has ended and prepares to move into ventricular filling
What can we use to monitor and study the heartbeat?
How does the electrocardiogram monitor the heart?
Records waves of depolarization of structures within the heart
What identifies depolarization of the atria, ventricles and perkinje fibers?
P wave =
Depolarization of atria
Q wave =
Depolarization of ventral septum
R wave =
Depolarization of ventricles
S wave =
Depolarization of Perkinje fibers
T wave =
Repolarization of ventricles
What represents depolarization of ventricular muscle cells?
What are the 3 jobs of the digestive system?
1. processes food (digestion)
2. extracts nutrients from it (absorption)
3. eliminates the residue (defecation)
The digestive system provides material for _______________
Cell division, growth and development
What are organs of the alimentary canal?
What are accessory organs of the digestive system?
What has a continuous tube that opens to the external environment at both ends?
What is the process of hydrolyzing larger food molecules (polymers) into absorbable monomers?
For materials to reach the inner cells of the body what must happen?
Pass through epithelial cells of the digestive tract into the blood (absorbed)
What parts of SI become specialized for absorption?
Villi and microvilli
Review what happens during digestion
What are 2 types of metabolism?
Anabolism and catabolism
What type of reactions build large molecules out of smaller ones?
What type of reactions require input of energy?
What type of reactions break down (hydrolyze) large molecules into their subunits?
What type of reactions release the subunit molecules into the blood?
What type of reactions are endergonic?
What type of reactions are exergonic?
Diet maintains 4 things:
1. Supply of nutrients to body cells
2. Energy source for fuel
4. Replacement of worn out parts
What are 6 nutrient classes recommended for daily consumption?
What can only provide energy measured in Kilocalories?
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
1 gram of carbohydrate = ______ kilo calories of energy
1 gram of fat = ______ kcal
1 gram of protein = ____ kcal
_______ calories = 1 kilocalorie
What are examples of lipids?
Triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids
What are artificially prepared by hydrogenating vegetable oils?
What raise LDL cholesterol ("bad cholesterol")?
Saturated fats and trans fatty acids
What lower the HDL ("goof cholesterol")?
Saturated fats and trans fatty acids
Nutrients that do not contribute energy to the body do not require _____________
What facilitates the absorption of fat soluble vitamins which are absorbed from the small intestines?
Digestion, emulsification and absorption of lipids
Recommended daily calorie intake for women?
Recommended daily calorie intake for men?
Recommended daily intake of carbohydrates?
Recommended daily intake of fats?
greater than 30% of daily calorie intake
Recommended daily intake of protein?
44-60 g/day (15% of daily calorie intake)
Recommended daily intake of cholesterol?
Greater than 200 mg/dL
Recommended daily intake of water?
1 mL per 1 kcal of energy
Body weight depends on ________________
Balance between anabolism and catabolism (balance between intake and use of energy)
The balance between anabolism and catabolism is influenced by the intake of energy from food molecules and is regulated by ____________________
What regulates the balance between anabolism and catabolism?
How do we gain weight?
More energy is taken into the body than what can be used (anabolism predominated)
The shifts in metabolism are regulated by ___________________
levels of hormone secretion
BMI stands for
Body mass index
How do we figure out BMI?
body weight/height (meters) squared (W/h2)
What is the minimum amount of energy required by the body at rest?
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Most of our caloric output is spent when?
Saliva contains what enzyme and what does that enzyme do?
Amylase; breaks down starches into polysaccharides and disaccharides
The bolus passes through the esophagus pass the ___________ to enter the stomach
Where does the stomach end?
What do we call the liquid that results from the mechanical and chemical activity of the stomach with the bolus?
What are the 2 functions of the stomach?
Store food after ingestion
Regulate the flow of food into the SI
What is the major site for food degradation and absorption of food molecules into the body?
What does the pancreas produce?
What does lipase break down?
What is the pH of the stomach?
What does sodium bicarbonate do?
Neutralizes the chyme as it enters the SI
What does the liver secrete?
Where is bile stored?
What increases the surface area for absorption?
Villi and microvilli
Chyme is transformed into ______
What are the 2 functions of the LI?
Concentrate chyme by removing water
Contains bacteria which produce vitamins K and B
What factors are examined when looking at a urine sample?
Appearance and color
What is the end product breakdown of hemoglobin?
The color of urine depends on the concentration of the pigment ______________
What might a pale yellow urine color indicate?
or can be very dilute due to a large intake of water
What might a milky color urine indicate?
Fat globules or pus corpuscles and possibly indicated a UTI
What might reddish color urine indicate?
Due to food pigments, certain drugs or blood in the urine
What might a greenish color urine indicate?
Bile pigment or certain bacterial infections
What might a brown-black urine color indicate?
metallic poisonings, hemorrhages due to things like renal injury or malaria
A fishy smell of urine may indicate what?
A fecal smell of urine may indicate what?
Intestinal urinary fistula
What conditions could be present if the urine is "sweet-tasting"?
Diabetes or acetonuria
What is the average urine pH?
What could lower pH?
Fever and acidosis
What could raise pH?
Anemia, vomiting and renal retention
What do we call the measure of the density of a substance compared to the density of water?
What is the usual specific gravity range of urine?
Specific gravity is inversely proportional to _________________
A high specific gravity can indicate what disease?
Nephritis or diabetes mellitus
A low specific gravity can indicate what disease?
What hormone does a pregnancy test recognize?
human chorionic gonadotropin
Common crystals may be present normally in ___________________________
Acid, neutral or alkaline urine
Abnormal types of crystals are almost always associated only with _____________
Acid or neutral urine
What represent cylindrical molds formed in the renal tubular lumina?
How are cast formed?
Precipitation of proteins and agglutination of cells within the renal tubules
What are the major classes of casts?
Where do cast originate from?
What can the presence of albumin in the urine indicate?
Kidney malfunction since one of the functions of the kidneys is to filter out albumin and glucose and return it to the body
The presence of glucose can indicate what disease?
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by ______________
What is a hallmark of diabetes?
Increase concentration of blood sugar levels
What are symptoms of diabetes mellitus?
Excessive urine output, dehydration accompanied by thirst and increased appetite
If one has diabetes what else can be found in the urine?
What disease may a person have when he or she suddenly begins a very low carb diet?
Phenylketonuria is a failure of what?
The body to produce the enzyme necessary to oxidize phenylalanine
How many people suffer from PKU?
1 in every 11,000
How does one get PKU?
Its a recessive trait (so both parents have to have it)
How is PKU tested in babies?
Not by urine test but blood test by a prick in the foot
After birth, how many weeks may past before phenylpruvic acid is excreted into the urine?
State laws require PKU testing within _______________
28 days or less
Oxygen is transported through the blood bound to _______________
What is the structure of hemoglobin?
4 subunits (2 alpha and 2 beta) and 4 heme groups
What is the byproduct of cellular metabolism?
Where does constant gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place?
What is the total volume of air that the lungs contain?
When studying pulmonary compliance there are 2 main factors being observed:
Gas/air and volume
What is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during regular breathing? Average measurement?
Tidal volume; 500 mL
What do we call the amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effort? Average measurement?
Expiratory reserve volume; 1200 mL
What do we call the amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort? Average measurement?
Inspiratory reserve volume; 3000 mL
What do we call the remaining air in the lungs after maximum expiration? Average amount?
Residual volume; 1300 mL
What do we call the total amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with maximum effort? Average amount?
Vital capacity; 4700 mL
How do we find vital capacity?
ERV + TV + IRV
What do we call the maximum amount of air the lungs can contain? Average amount?
Total lung capacity; 6000 mL
How do we calculate total lung capacity?
RV + VC
What is the percentage of the vital capacity that can be exhaled in a given time interval?
Forced expiratory volume