Biopharmaceutics I - Exam 3 - Final Exam Review

Home

By what mechanism does detergents keep grease droplets from coalescing?
Attraction forces of cationic heads of surfactants
Repelling action of the cationic heads of surfactants
Attraction forces of anionic heads of surfactants
Equilibrium forces of anioni

Repelling action of the anionic heads of surfactants

Which two pharmacokinetic parameters provide information about the extent of drug exposure?
Peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC)
Toxic threshold
Time to peak concentration (Tmax) and area under the curve (AUC)
Only the area under the c

Peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC)

Match the tissues with the correct perfusion primacy. You must match all correctly for full credit.
A. Poor, B. Intermediate, C. High
Kidney
Skin
Adipose Tissue

C
B
A

What excipient category should tablet binders be assigned to?
Preservatives
Suspending agents
Buffers
Diluents
Solvents

Diluents

Which application is submitted to the FDA when seeking approval for a generic product?
Abbreviated new drug application
Research new drug application
Fast track new drug application
Assisted new drug application
Conventional new drug application

Abbreviated new drug application

Theodore was being treated with prostaglandins for a chronic disease. After three weeks of successful treatment, his therapeutic response to the medication declined and he developed resistance. Which one of the following is likely the cause of decline in

Efflux of drug by MDR1

A pharmacist learns that a patient with hydrocodone prescription as a condition called diabetic gastroparesis that reduces the motility of his stomach. Which of the following will be the limiting factor for onset of action because of the patient's conditi

Absorption

Reducing the particle size of an active ingredient ________ surface area, increases ____________ rate, improves bioavailability, minimizes ______________, and contributes to greater ____________ uniformity.

increases, dissolution, segregation, dose

Which pattern of drug absorption is characterized by a slow rise in drug levels in the blood followed by a slow decline?
controlled release
immediate release
conventional release
delayed release
sustained release

sustained release

What is the primary difference between certified powdered dyes and lakes?
Dyes give off pastel colors and lakes give off hues of white
Dyes are water soluble and lakes are lipid soluble
Dyes are lipid soluble and lakes are water soluble
Dyes are more stab

Dyes are water soluble and lakes are lipid soluble

Barron, a cancer patient, has taken an over-the-counter supplement that inhibits the enzyme, typase. Typase is responsible for metabolizing the anti-cancer agent that has been prescribed for Barron. All the following are clinical implications of typase in

Increase in typase activity

A colloidal suspension that is classified as a plastic flow, will not begin to flow until?
Shearing stress is less than yield value
Rate of shear is calculated
Shearing stress is equal to yield value
Flocculation is calculated
Shearing stress is greater t

Shearing stress is greater than yield value

Which route of administration requires sterility of a dosage form?
Oral
Intramuscular
Buccal
Rectal
Transdermal

intramuscular

Dinoprostone has a pKa of 4.6 and is most soluble and stable at pH 6.9. Which buffer is best suited for an aqueous injection for this drug?
monosodium citrate/disodium citrate, pKa 4.78
citric acid/monosodium citrate, pKa 3.15
phosphoric acid/monosodium p

monosodium phosphate/disodium phosphate, pKa 7.21

If you increase the concentration of dissolved particles in a solution, how will it affect the following colligative properties?
The freezing point will be more elevated, and the osmotic pressure of the solution will be decreased
The freezing point will b

The freezing point will be more depressed, and the osmotic pressure of the solution will be decreased

How is rapid dissolution for a dosage form defined?
Defined as ?90% of the amount of drug in the dosage form dissolved within 30 minutes in a volume of ?900 mL dissolution medium at 37�C
Defined as ?85% of the amount of drug in the dosage form dissolved w

Defined as ?85% of the amount of drug in the dosage form dissolved within 30 minutes in a volume of ?900 mL dissolution medium at 37�C

A pharmacist must compound an oral dosage form using an appropriate pharmaceutical buffer. Which buffer should be selected?
Buffer made from boric acid at 0.5 molar concentration
Buffer made from amine at 0.25 molar concentration
Buffer made from bicarbon

Buffer made from bicarbonate at 0.125 molar concentration

Which white pigment is often added to oral and topical preparations and cosmetics?
Red ferric oxide
Beta-carotene
Coal Tar
Titanium Oxide
Zinc Oxide

Titanium Oxide

What designation must a drug have before it can be substituted for a generic product?
Reference listed
Generic listed
Bioequivalent
Pharmaceutically equivalent
Therapeutically equivalent

Therapeutically equivalent

You are formulating an emulsion where most of the surfactant molecules are oriented to the aqueous continuous phase. Based on the orientation of the surfactant molecules, what type of emulsion is most likely formed?
oil-in-water
water-in-oil-in-water
wate

oil-in-water

Color additives added to drug products and preparations solely for imparting color must conform to all the following EXCEPT?
Color for general use may not be used around the eye or in injections unless such use is specified in the color additive listing r

Must be pharmacologically active

All the following can help us in understand the pKa of a compound and pH of a solution EXCEPT:
Predict drug accumulation in body compartments that have different pHs from that of serum
Predict advisability of mixing drug solutions with neutral cosolvents

Predict advisability of mixing drug solutions with neutral cosolvents

Absorption from a dosage form refers to which of the following?
Movement of the drug across the epithelial barriers it encounters and into the bloodstream
Movement of the drug from interaction with elements of the dosage form to interaction with molecules

Movement of the drug across the epithelial barriers it encounters and into the bloodstream

Particles in a formulation measured were found to be in the range between 10 and 50 micrometers. Which type of pharmaceutical preparation was most likely represented?
Fine powder
Course Suspensions
Colloidal suspension
Coarse powder
Fine emulsions

Course Suspensions

Which of the following was banned from use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics in 1976?
Amaranth FD&C Red #1
Amaranth FD&C Red #3
Amaranth FD&C Yellow #6
Amaranth FD&C Yellow #2
Amaranth FD&C Red #2

Amaranth FD&C Red #2

Alcohol is converted to aldehyde via oxidation reaction. Which metabolic reaction and enzyme family are responsible for this reaction?
Phase I, CYP450
Phase II, CYP450
Phase I, UDP-UGT's
Phase II, UDP-UGT's
Phase II, Glutathione S-transferases

Phase I, CYP450

Which excipient can be used to control the pH of an oral dosage form solution?
Suspending agents
Preservatives
Buffers
Diluents
Solvents

Buffers

Amoxicillin and methotrexate are both secreted by the organic anion transporter in the kidney. What happens to the amount of methotrexate in the blood if the patient is started on amoxicillin?
The amount of methotrexate decreases because amoxicillin decre

The amount of methotrexate increases because amoxicillin decreases is secretion

How is the extent of drug protein binding measured?
Lipophilicity
AUC
LogP or LogD
Solubility
Volume of Distribution

Volume of Distribution

Which route of administration has a large surface area that results in reproducible and rapid absorption?
Vaginal
Pulmonary
Nasal
Ocular
Transdermal

Pulmonary

Why are some drugs not effective when they are used by mouth, but effective when used by other routes of administration?
The size of the dosage form is too small for a therapeutic response.
They are not palatable.
The drug is substantially degraded by enz

The drug is more selective to its target from other routes than the oral route.

What does the LogP of a drug tell us?
Its lipophilicity and how likely it is to cross membranes.
Its degree of aqueous solubility.
Its stability in aqueous solution.
Its molecular weight.
Its propensity for enzymatic degradation.

Its lipophilicity and how likely it is to cross membranes.

Chloraseptic is used for sore throats and the spray contains the functional group shown below. What taste would chloraseptic have if it were not taste masked?
Sweet
Bitter
Burnt
Salty
Sour

Sour

You are asked to compound an oral antibiotic medication for a diabetic patient. The patient does not like fruity flavors and is allergic to saccharine and maltodextrin. Which formulation is most appropriate for this patient?
Mix active ingredient with suc

Mix active ingredient with maltitol and flavor with maple

You need to perform dissolution studies on a modified release tablet dosage formulation using an open system dissolution apparatus. Which two USP methods should you use?
I. Method I
II. Method II
III. Method III
IV. Method IV
II and IV
I and III
II and II

III and IV

The artificial sweetener aspartame is also known as...
Mannitol
Sweet-n-Low
Equal
Splenda
Saccharine

Equal

When does the pH of a vehicle determines the ionization of a weak acid or weak base?
When we put a weak electrolyte into a vehicle with a pH determined by a buffer or a weak acid or weak base
When we put a strong electrolyte into a vehicle with a pH deter

When we put a weak electrolyte into a vehicle with a pH determined by a buffer or a strong acid or base

A drug's therapeutic effect can be altered if an enzyme, for which the drug is a substrate, is inhibited or induced.
False
True
More information needed to assess the efficacy

True

How is (Nernst) potential is defined?
The difference in potential between the actual surface and the electroneutral region of the solution
The difference in potential between the actual surface and the neutral region of the solution
The difference in pote

The difference in potential between the actual surface and the electroneutral region of the solution

Which factors affect the rate of diffusion of drug molecules through the gastrointestinal membrane?
I. Lipid solubility of the drug molecule
II. The concentration gradient of the membrane
III. The ionization of the drug molecule
IV. The size of the drug m

I, II, III and IV

What are the main physiological functions of lung surfactants?
Prevent the collapse of alveoli and decrease the pressure inside the alveoli
Prevent the collapse of alveoli and increase the pressure inside the bronchioles
Promote the collapse of alveoli an

Prevent the collapse of alveoli and decrease the pressure inside the alveoli

Van't Hoff recognized the effect of electrolytes on colligative properties was related to which one of the following.
Concentration of drug dissolved in solution
Concentration of electrolytes dissolved in solution
Number of ions dissolved in solution
Numb

Number of ions dissolved in solution

Bill needs to make a special oral dosage form for his 8-year-old patient with seasonal allergies. He decides to make a syrup because the child does not tolerate take pills. Which pharmaceutical additive combination is best suited for the patient?
Red colo

Red color sucrose syrup with cherry flavor

How does the FDA define pharmaceutically equivalent?
Two drug products that have a different active ingredient, dosage form, strength, route of administration, and conditions of use
Two drug products that have the same active ingredient, dosage form, and

Two drug products that have the same active ingredient, dosage form, strength, route of administration, and conditions of use

What is true of pharmaceutical products that are in the class of pseudoplastic flow?
They are referred to as shear thickening systems
The viscosity decreases with increasing the rate of shear
The viscosity increases as the rate of shear increases
They are

The viscosity decreases with increasing the rate of shear

The Jaxtonian Laboratory needs to design a formulation of water and peppermint oil for to use as a vehicle for a new therapeutic agent indicated for skin rashes. Unfortunately, the oil and water are immiscible. What is the best recommendation you should g

Add Polyethylene Glycol surfactant to the mixture

How should you describe a transporter that transfer substrates out of cells in the direction of systemic circulation?
Secretory, influx transporter
Absorptive, secretory transporter
Absorptive, influx transporter
Secretory, efflux transporter
Absorptive,

Absorptive, efflux transporter

Which experimental parameter do we use to estimate how fast a solid dosage form will be available for absorption?
Absorption rate
Drug metabolism rate
Intrinsic dissolution rate
Log P
Solubility of drug

Intrinsic dissolution rate

The parameters for a solid dosage form, using the Noyes Whitney equation, were as follows: D = 1.2; A = 6; Cs = 0.06; h = 2. The following change was made to the parameter h, h = 4. How does this change affect the dissolution rate of the dosage form?
Sets

Decreases the dissolution rate

The FDA does not require bioequivalence studies for which type of dosage form?
Topical Suspensions
Oral suspensions
Transdermal solutions
Topical solutions
Oral Solutions

Oral Solutions

The pH of the stomach is between 1.0 and 3.5 and the pH of the small intestine is 6.7 to 7.6. Where in the gastrointestinal tract will a weakly basic drug with a pKa of 9.6 exist in greater amounts in its membrane soluble form?
Urine
Small Intestine
There

Small Intestine

Which dye was the first to be chemically synthesized?
Zinc oxide
Aniline
Saffron
Beta carotene
Indigo

Aniline

Which of the following is the driving force for drug diffusion across a biological membrane?
Dissolution
Lipophilicity
Ionization
solubility
pH

solubility

Which one of the following is an advantage of using buffers in dosage forms?
Maximize drug solubility
Improve patient satisfaction
Improve drug metabolism
Improve drug disposition
Minimize drug stability

Maximize drug solubility

Cyclodextrin-drug complexes may be more stable to hydrolysis, oxidation, and photolysis, and demonstrate lower mucous membrane irritation because of which of the following?
Increased drug solubility
Increased release of drug from complex
Higher concentrat

Lower concentration of free drug

The desirable properties of sweeteners include (select all that apply):
Pleasant taste with not bitter aftertaste
Soluble in water
Pleasant Odor
Pleasant color
Chemically stable at normal temperatures of use

Pleasant taste with not bitter aftertaste, soluble in water, chemically stable at normal temperatures of use

Why might it be difficult to design a dosage form for drug delivery to the brain?
Doses can only be formulated in multiple units.
Dosage form may be too water soluble.
Dosage form may be able to escape enzymatic degradation.
Location of the target recepto

Location of the target receptors are difficult to reach.

After ingesting an oral tablet with low solubility, a patient found the dosage form ineffective. Which process is likely to cause the ineffectiveness of the dosage form?
Rate of tablet disintegration
Rate of dissolution of tablet
Rate of tablet deaggregat

Rate of dissolution of tablet

A patient was prescribed an oral drug (703 FW) in its conjugate acid form and asked to describe the taste. Which taste would most likely be described?
Burnt
Bitter
Salty
Sweet
Sour

Bitter

Drug derivatives are:
A drug molecule that has been chemically altered to change its physical properties
A drug molecule that hydrogen bonds with solvent molecules within a crystalline form
A drug molecule that interacts with water molecules within its cr

A drug molecule that has been chemically altered to change its physical properties

What quality does disintegrants build on in a dosage form?
Chemical stability of dosage form
Microbial stability of dosage form.
Release of drug
Size of the dosage form
Palatability of dosage form

Release of drug

Calculate the molality (m) of a 7.55 kg sample of a solution of the solute CH2Cl2 dissolved in the solvent acetone (CH3COH3C) if the sample contains 929 g of methylene chloride (CH2Cl2)
5.35 molal
1.65 molal
1.50 molal
6.62 molal
4.35 molal

1.65 molal

After application to the affected area of skin, a drug moves out of the cream dosage form and into the skin. The mechanism of release of the drug from the cream should be described as...
Degradation
Disintegration
Diffusion
Dissolution
Distribution

Diffusion

Which equation should he use to describe the dissolution rate of the solid dosage form?
Arrhenius equation
Van't Hoff equation
Fick's First law equation
Noyes-Whitney equation
Higuchi-Connors equation

Noyes-Whitney equation

Calculate the sodium chloride equivalence for dipivefrin hydrochloride. MW 388; i 1.8
0.12
0.21
0.15
0.14
0.11

0.15

Which parameter tells us the partition coefficient for the combination of ionized and unionized forms of a drug at a specified pH?
Dissolution
Log P
Solubility
Absorption
Log D

Log D

A pharmacist wanted to make an aqueous injection of amiodarone which, has a pKa of 8.4. The drug will be injected unionized as a weak base and the pharmacist will add hydrochloric acid to the drug in water. What prediction would you make about the solutio

acidic solution; BH+

A pharmacist must compound an emulsion with appropriate properties for to achieve optimal patient compliance. He must choose between two emulsions. Emulsion A has a centipoise (viscosity) of 800 and emulsion B has a centipoise of 500. What can you determi

Emulsion B has a rate of shear that is lower than emulsion A

What does the term "caked" mean in suspensions?
Collection of particles that are flocculated
Collection of compacted solid particles that are easily redispersed
Collection of liquid spheres that are not easily redispersed
Collection of liquid particles th

Collection of compacted solid particles that are not easily redispersed

Why are some tissues less accessible to drugs than other tissues?
The tissues may be highly perfused
Log P of the drug is less than three
May have increased absorption in a capillary epithelium
The tissues may contain fewer drug metabolizing enzymes
Some

Some have reduced permeability in a capillary epithelium

You are preparing a ketoprofen suspension. The drug has a log P of 3.2 and a water solubility of 51 mg/L. You add a suspending vehicle to the powder and when you attempt to stir the mixture, the powder bounces off your stirring rod attached to several air

The interfacial (surface) tension between water and ketoprofen is high

The allergic reaction statement must be included on pharmaceutical products intended for oral, nasal, vaginal or rectal use when which color is added?
FD&C Yellow No. 6
F&C Yellow No. 5
FD&C Yellow No. 5
F & D Yellow No. 5
FD&C Yellow No. 3

FD&C Yellow No. 5

Place the routes of administration in the correct ranking in terms of fastest speed of onset to slowest speed of onset.
Sublingual
Transdermal
Oral
Intravenous

Intravenous, sublingual, oral, and transdermal

An IV solution was administered to an inpatient at St. Cloud Medical Center. Within minutes the patient exhibited swelling in extremities because red blood cells began to lose water. How would you describe the solution given to the patient?
Hypotonic and

Hypertonic

Why would a sweetener be added to a dosage form?
To increase the viscosity of the dosage form.
To make the dosage form more palatable.
To increase the stability of the dosage form.
To increase the aqueous solubility of the dosage form.
To preserve the dos

To make the dosage form more palatable.

Which of the following is NOT an example of a dosage form?
Capsules
Tablets
Buffers
Ointments
Syrups

Buffers

The E-value is used to calculate which one of the following parameters?
Osmolarity
Van't Hoff factor
Osmolality
USP volume
Tonicity

Tonicity

If you observe a cloudy injection, which should otherwise be a clear solution, how should the instability of the dosage form be defined?
Stable
Chemically unstable
Physically unstable

Physically unstable

What must be inferred from a drug with a positive Log P?
A positive log P tells us that drug equally partitions into biological membranes and an aqueous solution.
A positive log P tells us that drug is more favorable to partition into an aqueous solution.

A positive log P tells us that drug is more favorable to partition into biological membranes.

What is true of dosage forms that are not solutions?
They must complex to proteins in aqueous body fluids before they can move across membrane barriers
They must dissolve in aqueous body fluids after they move across membrane barriers
They must solidify i

They must dissolve in aqueous body fluids before they can move across membrane barriers

Which FDA category requires batch certification?
Manmade dyes are derived from petroleum and coal sources
Natural dyes obtained from mineral sources
Manmade dyes are obtained from plant, animal, or mineral sources
Natural dyes obtained from plant sources

Manmade dyes are derived from petroleum and coal sources

A patient who exhibits an increased therapeutic effect because of the loss of drug deactivation by Cyp34b could be described as the following?
Intermediate metabolizer
Poor metabolizer
Extensive metabolizer
Ultrarapid metabolizer
Fast metabolizer

Poor metabolizer

Which flavor is preferred most for children?
Coffee
Chocolate
Butterscotch
Bubblegum
Licorice

Bubblegum

What does a drug log P (octanol/water) of 3 indicates?
That there are 100 molecules of drug in octanol for every 1 molecule of drug in the water phase
That there are 1000 molecules of drug in octanol for every 1 molecule of drug in the water phase
That th

That there are 1000 molecules of drug in octanol for every 1 molecule of drug in the water phase

Which flavor is common among birds, cats, and dogs?
Marshmallow
Grape
Tuna
Molasses
Butterscotch

Molasses

What must occur to create a foam when the formulation is expelled from the container?
The pressure on the surfactant and propellant ingredient must be decreased.
The pressure on the surfactant ingredient must be decreased.
The pressure on the propellant i

The pressure on the propellant ingredient must be decreased.

Which one of the following is NOT commonly used to manipulate drug solubility?
Cosolvents
Drug derivatization
Spray drying agents
Solid State manipulation
pH

Spray drying agents

All soaps contain the following in their structure....
A short hydrocarbon chain and a carboxylate group
A long hydrocarbon chain and a decarboxylate group
A long hydrocarbon chain and a carboxylate group
A short hydrocarbon chain and an amine group
A lon

A long hydrocarbon chain and a carboxylate group

Syrup dosage forms must be...
Resistant to microbial growth
Sterile and prepared as powders for reconstitution right before use.
Prepared as powders for reconstitution just prior to use.
Sterile and resistant to microbial growth
Sterile

Resistant to microbial growth

An association colloidal dispersion was formulated for night sweats. The instructions guided the formulation scientist to add 150 monomers, with diameters of 50 angstroms each, to an aqueous dispersion medium. What determination can be made about this ass

There is not enough information to make a determination

Pyrazinamide is a potent inducer of Cyp34A. Amlodipine is a substrate of Cyp34A. What happens to the amount of amlodipine reaching drug targets in blood vessels if the patient is started on pyrazinamide?
The amount of amlodipine increases because the numb

The amount of amlodipine increases because the number of metabolic enzymes increases.

Which process changes a drug structure to facilitate elimination from the body through urine or feces?
Excretion
Metabolism
Distribution
Liberation
Absorption

Metabolism

Liberation from a dosage form refers to which of the following?
Non movement of the drug across the epithelial barriers it encounters and into the bloodstream
Movement of the drug across the epithelial barriers it encounters and into the bloodstream
Termi

Movement of the drug from interaction with elements of the dosage form to interaction with molecules of biological fluid