cervical muscles


upper trapezius and diaphragm


deltoids and biceps


wrist extensors


TRICEPS, increased wrist control, emerging thumb muscles


additional finger flexion/extension, and lumbricals


Hand Instrinsics, emerging intercostals, remaining UE muscles - including the opponens pollicis


Erector Spinae


Oblique and rectus abdominals


Additional abdominal


hip flexors


knee extensors


ankle dorsi flexors


long toe extensors


plantar flexors and LE adduction


central cord syndrome

greater weakness of UE than the LEs

Brown-Sequard Syndrome

Damage to half of spinal cord. Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body. Loss of proprioception and discriminatory touch on ipsilateral side of body.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

lower motor neuron injury of the lumbrosacral nerve roots, resulting in loss of movement. Only peripheral nerves impacted, not the cord itself (prognosis is greater!)

zone of partial preservation

dermatomes and myotomes below the sensory and motor levels that remain partially innervated

anterior cord syndrome

loss of movement, pain, and temp below injury. Individual maintains light touch and proprioceptive sensation.


surgical procedure is used to decrease pressure within spinal column


bone tissue is used to fuse the vertebrae and improve stability

autonomic dysreflexia

increase in BP caused by reflexive action of ANS. Other symptoms: pounding headache, sweating, chills, nasal congestion, slowing of HR. To treat: sit person upright and remove or address irritating condition. Affects T6 and above.

orthostatic hypotension (OH)

Can affect ANY injury level. Sudden DROP in BP related to lack of venous blood return from the abdomen and LEs. Other symptoms: nausea or dizziness. To treat: lay person back, elevate legs as needed. To prevent: medication, elastic stockings, abdominal bi

heterotopic ossification (HO)

development of ectopic bone below the neurological injury level. Most common in hips, knees, elbows. Swelling, tightness and warmth may also be present in surrounding muscles of the joint.

focus on tx is on increasing strengthening to maximize ADL/IADL participation, orthotics, AE, AT, functional and med mobility, and direction of care. What level is this?


what is the focus on tx for C1-C3?

Use of environmental controls, AD and computer control, orthotics, direction of carae

The focus on intervention is on efficiency with bowel and bladder care, IALD activities, shoulder preservation. May initiate learning ambulation skills. What level is your ct?


what does your intervention focus on for C8 level?

efficiency with bowel and bladder care, IADL activities, wheelchair skills, lateral transfers and push up pressure reliefs, and shoulder preservation. Driving can now be achieved with only basic hand controls.

the focus of intervention is on tenodesis training, functional mobility and transfers, adapted dressing techniques, orthotics, bladder and bowel care, and the progression of power to manual wheelchair propulsion. what level is your ct at?