Soc 100 Test Three


Micro Theory

focuses on small scale interactions between people. example: deviance, family, development of self/ socialization, and impression management.

Macro Theory

Focuses on large scale interactions. Example: inequality, racism, etc.


A theory that suggests all social institutions (political, medical, legal) have a function or purpose for society. Less concerned with individuals and more with societal level consequences

Conflict Theory

Suggests society is in a perpetual state of conflict as groups vie for limited resources. Instead of focusing on how social institutions work in harmony to maintain societies ( as functionalists do), conflict theorists focus on how POWER DIFFERENCES betwe


Groundwork for Conflict theory. Look at the different concepts and definitions. Marxism comes first before conflict theory. He is very specific on the dynamics between workers and capitalist. Power hierarchy.


Layers of hierarchy

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

a measure of social class that is based on income, education, and occupation

Social Location

The idea that your location in the stratification system determines the outcome of your life status. Many things impact this: gender, sex, sexuality, religion, school, etc.


a social system in which promotion is based on individual ability or achievement; We believe this in the US. Success is based on merit. If they aren't successful, they didn't try hard enough. We do not live in a pure meritocracy. It is very hard to move u

Social Class System

The system we live in. A system where our achievements are based on efforts and social location (where you start)

Characteristics of Classes

Jobs, education, what they can afford. Etc.

Making Ends Meet ( budget activity)

Illustrates how much life costs and what we had to give up to live on a lower class paycheck.



poverty line

3x the cost of food in the 1960s. Looked at for inflation each year

2 reasons for the persistence of poverty

1. (Functionalist thinking) We believe in the idea of the meritocracy. We are less likely to help those who are in poverty.
2. (Conflict theory) The way income and wealth are distributed is unequal from the start. Money is hard to redistributed ( think of


overgeneralized beliefs about the traits and attributes of members of a particular group; not really bad until it is prejudice or discrimination

Quintile Simulation

Look at the activity in notes and on canvas. Wealth Distribution






Biological characteristics; social construction. Humans are more similar than different.


Cultural characteristics

race as a Social Construction

As humans, we are more similar than different, but we highlight our differences and then not needingly imbue those differences with meaning.


Treating people different because of race or ethnicity

Interpersonal racism

One person being mean to another person. Individual interaction that is negative. Overt racism. Clearly unfair.

internalized racism

The idea that we have a history of inequality for any kind of minority. Overtime, these ideas get imbedded into our society. We get exposed to these all the time, and some of the thinkings seep into our thinking. Not coherently there.

institutional racism

Because of history and culture, it become embedded into our society into systems. (Educational, political, housing, etc.) redlining.


Gender inequality; Prejudice and or discrimination directed at individuals based on sex or gender.

three types of sexism

Institutional, internalized, interpersonal

wage gap

(Institutional sexism) Clearly seen with wages between men and women in the same field

gender in the media

(Institutional sexism) Clearly seen as women as objects and caregivers. Saw many stereotypes.


Short hand for everything related to sexual behavior, acts, desire, arousal, entire experience

sexual orientations

A persons enduring pattern of sexual attraction toward; mix of biology, psychology, and environmental. Natural part of who you are.

compulsory heterosexuality

the system of sexuality that imposes negative sanctions on those who are homosexual or bisexual; Societal expectation that heterosexuality is normal and what is supposed to happen

kinsey scale

a 7-point scale of sexual orientation devised by Alfred Kinsey; That not many people are completely straight or completely homosexual

Gender differences/ orgasm gap

Women and men's sexual peaks are very different. The idea that women orgasms are less frequent in relationships

sexual assault

Sexual intercourse or activity without consent of both parties

types of assault

Rape: vaginal, oral, or anal penetration that results from physical force
Sexual Coercion: vaginal, oral, or anal penetration that results from verbal, but not physical pressure
Sexual Contact/harassment: Physical contact or verbal comments without permis

Demographic factors associated with assault

Age, gender, sexual orientation

cultural factors associated with assault

Age, gender, sexual orientation; normally performed by a person the victim knows

sources of social change

Environmental/population pressures; cultural innovation; diffusion of cultural practices; influence of personalities

collective action

Relatively small or localized groups of people working together to achieve a goal

social movements (three types)

Reform movements; Counter movements; revolutionary movement

Characteristics of successful social movements

Access to resources (money, participants, ) , political opportunity (the government/ the receptiveness of the ideas)

A heart surgeon earns much more than a hospital orderly. A functionalist sociologist would most likely explain such a disparity between incomes as:

A way to ensure that individuals will be motivated to become surgeons.
Functionalists argue that inequality is necessary to motivate people to undertake the lengthy training associated with many jobs in society.

What is socioeconomic status?

--a means of demarcating a person's position in society by looking at his or her income
--a means of demarcating a person's position in society by looking at his or her educational attainment
--means of demarcating a person's position in society by lookin

Why would a conflict theorist be concerned about differences in corporate v. individual agendas?

--Because corporations have a great deal of power in our society
--Because corporations can see their interests translated into reality easier than individuals can
Reason:Corporations are very powerful entities in society; consequently they are much more

According to conflict theorists, stratification is ultimately based on:

the unequal distribution of resources

The general differences in life outcomes that exist between members of the upper class, middle class, working class, and lower class suggest that:

a meritocracy is unattainable in its pure form

A child's social class is

important because it is very influential in determining his or her life chances
Where a person starts in the stratification system has a great deal of influence on where they end up later in life.

Social mobility is:

the ability to move up or down on the stratification hierarchy

According to Marx, capitalists exert power in both the ___________ (the economic system) and the ___________ (the institutions that are used to perpetuate inequality).

Base and the superstructure

What is conflict theory?

A Derivative of Marxism and a theory that focuses on power

Middle class individuals often occupy _________ jobs while working class individuals often occupy ___________.

Professional; industrial sector jobs

The poverty line is calculated based on three times the cost of food in the 1960s. This measure of poverty . . .

--fails to adequately account for the many non-food expenses people have today
--likely underestimates the number of people in poverty

The very wealthiest people in society have so much money that if it were laid end to end it could stretch to the moon and back twice. What would a conflict theorist say about this?

Inequality of this sort illustrates stark power differences between groups in society

Quintile data demonstrate that sharp disparities exist in U.S. income and wealth. Why is this important?

it helps explain the persistence of poverty in the U.S.

Your sister calls you after her first month away at college and she says has some exciting news she's "met someone." In the course of the conversation she mentions her new boyfriend, Bo, is a biker and you immediately imagine a big tattooed guy who likes

Stereotypes are over-generalizations that people use to make quick assessments about situations and that's what the sister in the scenarios was doing as soon as she heard the word "biker.

Data on the distribution of wealth in the U.S. reveal that:

--individuals in the lowest quintile owe more money than they earn
--individuals in the highest quintile hold more than 80% of all the wealth in the U.S.

Prejudice is a __________ while discrimination is a ___________.

Belief: behavior

Quintile data reveal that over time:

those in the top quintile are getting richer over time

Erica believes all people are created equal, but she works for an employer who refuses to provide services to Latinx individuals. Thus, in the course of doing her job, Erica routinely turns away Latinx customers. Erica is:

Non Prejudice but discriminatory

Stereotypes are:

shorthand categories that our brain uses to understand the world

There are two explanations for the persistence of poverty. Which explanation is consistent with functional theory?

Belief in Meritocracy

Although Beth would be the first to tell you "people are people, regardless of race, class, or ethnicity," without even realizing it, she raises her eyebrows and inhales deeply when her sister (who is white) tells her she is dating a Hispanic man. How wou

internalized racism

Why is it argued that race is a social construction?

becuase as humans we are more similar than different
because we highlight our differences and give them unnecessary meaning
because genetic differences among races are relatively minimal

The North School District spends an average of $12,000 per student. On the other side of town, the South School District spends less than $4,000 per student. Such numbers are a function of the property values of the school districts. Furthermore, racial a

how institutional racism is perpetuated in the educational system

Monique believes all people are created equal, but she works for an employer who refuses to provide services to Latinos. Thus, in the course of doing her job, Monique routinely turns away Latino customers. Monique is:

Non prejudice but discriminatory

According to your Vizi lessons, in what era did women start to enter the workforce in America?

post industrial

According to your Vizi lessons, Jim Crow laws established rigid lines between African Americans and Whites, mandating unequal access to such services as public transportation, public schools, and drinking fountains. In other words, Jim Crow laws were a fo


Men dominate in fields such as business management, engineering, and medicine. This reflects the fact that:

Institutional Sexism persists in the workforce

The video title and phrase "Tough Guise" refers to:

Males adopting dominant images of masculinity
this title is a play on words -- it simultaneously makes us thinks about "tough guys" and about the hypermasculine "guise" (act/front/etc.) that men and boys feel pressured to uphold in our society.

Institutional racism is:

difficult to recognize and combat
racism that exists at the societal level

Statistical discrimination is a potential explanation for:

the wage gap

In class we discussed a number of reasons for the high incidence of sexual assault, especially acquaintance assault, in our society. What was the overarching sociological argument that was offered in class?

sexual assault is a product of cultural treatments of sex in our society
sexual assault is a result of institutional sexism

Which of the individuals described below is most closely associated with asexuality?

Alan is in a long-term, committed, romantic relationship with Sarah that does not involve sex

We often think of sexuality as an "either/or" proposition - a person is either heterosexual or homosexual. What does the Kinsey scale suggest about this line thinking?

Sexuality is more complex than a simple dichotomy
Sexuality may, in fact, exist on a continuum
It is possible for a person to be predominantly of one sexual orientation while still also having some interest other sexual orientations

Which of the individuals described below is most closely associated with bisexuality?

Patricia is involved in a sexual relationship with both Matthew and Lisa.

The introduction of the polio vaccine in 1952 changed the face of childhood considerably. This is an example of social change that results from

Cultural innovation

Successful social movements need

a receptive audience
access to resources

What kinds of movements are the following: the pro-choice abortion movement that spurred the U.S. government to legalize abortion, and the anti-abortion movement that came about in an effort to reverse the legislation?

reform movement; counter-movement

Students marching on campus to protest a university's alcohol policies is an example of:

Collective action

Sexual assault is associated with

familiarity with the perpetrator

Social change refers to:

Changes in society that affect our culture
Changes in society that affect our values
Changes in society that affect our institutions