Similarities in public speaking and every day conversation (4)

� Organizing your thoughts logically
� Tailoring your message to the audience
� Telling a story for maximum impact
� Adapting to listener feedback

Differences in public speaking and everyday conversation (3)

� Public speaking is more highly structured
� Public speaking requires more formal language
� Public speaking requires a different method of delivery

Methods of controlling nervousness and making it work for the speaker (6)

-Acquiring speaking experience
- Preparing before the speech is presented
- Thinking positively
- Use the power of visualizing success
- Knowing that nervousness is not visible
- Don't expect perfection

Identify and discuss the basic elements of the speech communication process (7)

- Speaker- the one speaking and success depends on personal credibility, knowledge
of the subject, preparation, manner of speaking, and sensitivity towards the audience
- Message- goal of public speaking is to have your intended message be what is

Define ethnocentrism, and explain why speakers need to avoid it

-Ethnocentrism is the belief that your own group or culture is superior to all others.
-Speakers must be respectful of other cultures and adapt their message accordingly.

Explain why a strong sense of ethical responsibility is vital for public

Ethical decisions involve weighing potential courses of action against a set of ethical
standards or guidelines. Public speaking must be used in accordance to ones ethical

List and discuss the five guidelines for ethical speechmaking

-Make sure your goals are ethically sound
� reflecting on whether the goals of your speech conflict or agree with your ethical
- Be fully prepared for each speech
� An unprepared speaker not only wastes their own time, but the time of the

Identify and differentiate among global plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and
incremental plagiarism

Global Plagiarism
� taking a speech entirely from one source and passing it off as one's own
- Patchwork Plagiarism
� taking a speech from several sources and passing it off as one's own
- Incremental Plagiarism
� occurs when the speaker does not give pro

List and discuss the three basic guidelines for ethical listening

-Be courteous and attentive
� giving the attention and respect that you would like from your listeners
- Avoid prejudging the speaker
� reach an intelligent judgement regarding material in the speech, not the speaker
- Maintain the free and open expressio

Explain the difference between hearing and listening

- Hearing is the vibration of sound waves on one's eardrums
- Listening is paying attention to, and making sense of, what we hear

Explain why good listening is important to effective speechmaking

If you do not listen well, then you will not understand the information and thus may pass
along your misunderstood information to others during a speech.

Identify the four major causes of poor listening

- Not concentrating
- Listening too hard
- Jumping to conclusions
- Focusing on delivery and personal appearances

Discuss the six ways to become a better listener

- Take listening seriously
- Be an active listener
- Resist distractions
- Don't be diverted by appearance or delivery
- Suspend judgement
- Focus your listening

Explain why the effective use of language is vital to speech composition and
public speaking


Explain four methods one can use when having trouble choosing a speech

- Personal Inventory
� Listing experiences, interests, hobbies, skills, beliefs, and so forth.
- Clustering
� make a table consisting of people, places, things, events, processes, concepts,
natural phenomena, problems, and plans and policies and fill them

differentiate among the general purpose, specific purpose, and central idea of
a speech

- General purpose
� Whether you wish to inform or persuade the audience
- Specific purpose
� Should be able to state specific purpose in one infinitive phrase (to inform my
audience about...) tells the focus of the speech
- Central idea
� What exactly you

Formulate effective specific purpose statements (5 q's)

- When you have found your specific purpose, ask yourself these questions
� does it meet the assignment?
� Can I accomplish it in the time allotted?
� Is the it relevant to my audience?
� Is it too trivial for my audience?
� Is it too technical for my aud

formulate effective central ideas (4)

- Central ideas are what exactly you want your audience to remember after they have
heard your speech, the three main points that will be covered in your speech
� Should be in the form of a sentence.
� Not be a question
� avoid figurative language
� shoul

Discuss Lucas's five tips for formulating specific purpose statements and the
five questions to ask about them

� does it meet the assignment?
� Can I accomplish it in the time allotted?
� Is the it relevant to my audience?
� Is it too trivial for my audience?
� Is it too technical for my audience?

Discuss and apply the four guidelines for effective central ideas

Should be in the form of a sentence.
� Not be a question
� avoid figurative language
� should not be vague

discuss the four kinds of informative speeches

-Speeches about objects
� Anything visible, tangible, and stable in form
- Speeches about processes
� a systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product
- Speeches about events
� anything that has happened or is happening
- Speeches

20. Explain and apply the six guidelines for informative speaking

- Don't overestimate what the audience knows
- Relate the subject directly to the audience
- Don't be too technical
- Avoid abstractions
- Personalize your ideas
- Be creative

Explain three ways to avoid abstractions in an informative speech

- Using description of the event or description of internal feelings
- Comparisons helps to put your subject in a concrete form that is relatable
- Contrast, similar to Comparisons and make the idea more familiar

Discuss why it is important for speeches to be organized clearly and

Organization in a clear manner helps to allow the reader to easily follow the path of the
speech and better understand the arguments you are making.

Identify and discuss the major methods of organizing main points in a speech (3)

- Can be done specifically as they are stated in the thesis and the order that they are
said in the thesis statement
- Can be organized via the steps in a process
- Can be organized during research and finding out more regarding the topic being

Discuss the guidelines for organizing main points (5)

Chronological Order
- Spatial Order
- Causal Order
- Problem-solution order
- Topical order

Explain the four kinds of speech connectives

- Transitions
� Indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and and is moving on to
- Internal previews
� Lets the audience know what topic they are going to hear next and are more
detailed than transitions
- Internal summaries
� Summaries w

Identify the four objectives of a speech introduction

- Get the attention and interest of your audience
- Reveal the topic of your speech
- Establish your credibility and goodwill
- Preview the body of the speech

Explain seven methods that can be used to gain attention to an introduction

- Relate topic to the audience
- State the importance of your topic
- Startle the audience
- Arouse the curiosity of the audience
- Question the audience
- Begin with a quotation
- Tell a story

Identify the major functions of a speech conclusion (2)

- Signal the end of a speech
- Reinforce the central idea

Explain the methods for fulfilling the functions of a speech conclusion(3)

- Summarize your speech by restating the main points of the speech
- End with a quotation that relates to the speech
- Make a dramatic statement by using your own means

Differentiate between a preparation outline and a speaking outline

- Preparation outline
� an outline that helps you prepare the speech. Deciding on what will be in the intro,
how you will organize your main points, and what will be said in the conclusion
- Speaking outline
� used to help you remember what you want to sa

Utilize the guidelines for an effective preparation outline (8)

- State the specific purpose of your speech
- Identify the central idea
- Label the intro, body, and conclusion
- use a consistent pattern of symbols
- State main points and sub points in full sentences
- Label transitions, internal summaries, and interna

Explain three major advantages to using visual aids in a speech

- Makes the speaker's message more interesting
- makes speech easier to understand
- helps the audience retain the information of the speech longer

Discuss the kinds of visual aids available for use in speeches (6)

- Objects and models- bringing the actual object that the speech is about such as a
shoe or skis
- Photographs and drawings- most effective if using Powerpoint
- Graphs- helps show patterns and trends from data
- Charts- used for summarizing large blocks

Discuss and apply the guidelines for effective use of visual aids in a speech (7)

- Prepare visual aids well in advance
- Keep visual aids simple
- Make sure visual aids are large enough
- use a limited amount of text
- Use effective and easy to read fonts
- Use color effectively
- Use images strategically

Explain why good delivery is important to successful speaking

Conveys the speaker's ideas in a clear and interesting manner without distracting the
audience using formability at times with a degree of conversational tone

identify and differentiate among the four methods of delivering a speech

-Reading from a manuscript
� speaking word for word, used when absolutely accuracy is important
- Reciting from memory
� reciting from memory, can be bad because can cause the speaker to focus on the
words and not the audience
- Speaking impromptu
� Deliv

Explain the eight aspects of voice usage that are crucial to public speaking

- Volume
- Pitch- highness or lowness of the speaker's voice, change in pitch is known as
- Rate- the speed at which a person talks
- Pause
- Vocal variety- changes in pitch, rate, and volume making the material more interesting
- pronunciation

Explain why nonverbal communication is important to the speaker

There is a great amount of judgment regarding a speaker given by his or her posture,
facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact which can either help add or subtract
from the effectiveness of the speech

Discuss the four most important aspects of nonverbal communication for the

- Personal Appearance- wearing appropriate clothing to the event
- Movement- appearing poised and calm is important and avoiding twitching or
shuffling your feet while speaking which can distract from the message of the speech
- Gestures-Whatever gestures

Explain the five-step method for effectively practicing delivery

-Go through preparation outline aloud to check what you have written is what you wish
to convey
- Prepare a speaking outline
- Practice the speech aloud several times before using the speaking outline, reciting all
that you wish to say in the speech
- Now

Discuss the five important resources for finding what you need in the library

- Librarians
� Experts who would better be able to assist in finding materials
- The Catalogue
� Lists of books and other resources owned by the library
- Reference works
� Encyclopedias, yearbooks, quotation books, biographical aids
- Newspapers and peri

Explain how to use the internet efficiently and responsibly for speech
research (3)

- Using virtual libraries to narrow down articles available
- Government resources are reliable forms of information
- Wikipedia is unreliable but can lead to reliable sources and a good place to start
learning about a topic

explain the three key criteria for evaluating the quality of materials on the web

-Checking authorship
- Recency about when it was written and updated.