What is the Sahara?
Desert region extending across north Africa from Atlantic ocean to Red Sea
What is Sub-Saharan Africa?
The part of Africa below the Sahara
What percent of people in Sub Saharan Africa live in cities?
How long have Europeans had a presence in the region?
Since the 15th Century
When were the first slaves sent to the Amercias from Sub Saharan Africa?
in the 16th century
Why was there a need to determine formal control over the region?
There was increased competition between European countries over land/resources. (Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal)
What was the Berlin Conference? and when was it held?
European powers met in Berlin, Germany to decide how to "carve up" Africa. 1884-1885
Which African leaders attended the Berlin Conference?
None. No African leaders were invited.
How were the boundaries drawn up after the Berlin Conference?
the boundaries were drawn up to satisfy Europeans. (Many of the boundaries remain today.)
How long did European countries maintain colonies in Africa?
From late 1800s until 1960s
How long have most African countries been independent?
Only for about 60 years
How did the Europeans use raw materials and resources from Sub Saharan Africa?
1. Raw materials/resources were extracted for industrializing Europe.
What was the colonies purpose in developing infrastructure in Sub Saharan Africa?
The infrastructure developed primarily to meet needs of colonizing powers
Are the boundaries between countries in Sub Saharan Africa different now?
Most boundaries drawn to satisfy Europeans remain today
Why did the Europeans divide many tribal and ethnic groups?
To weaken them
How were the European colonies started in Sub Saharan Africa?
European trading companies started buying raw materials. Eventually the trading companies grew into formal colonial governments who controlled most of the region
What did "Divide and Rule" mean?
The deliberate dividing and separating tribal and native groups in order to cause divisions which gave the Europeans more power.
How did Britain maintain control of Nigeria? When did Nigeria gain independence?
Britain deliberately divided north and south which created conflicts. There are still ongoing tensions between north and south Nigeria. They gained independence in 1960.
What was Apartheid? When did it start/end?
Apartheid was a system of laws mandating racial segregation in South Africa. It started in 1948 and ended in 1994.
Certain tribal and ethnic groups were favored by some colonizing powers. True or False?
What did favoring certain tribal and ethnic groups cause?
It laid the foundation for many conflicts between ethnic groups.
What country took the greatest control in colonizing Africa?
Britain (divided North and South)
What ethnic group were given preference by the British?
What country took control from west to east?
Who controlled the Congo?
When did Uganda gain independence?
What year did the military overthrow the government in Uganda? Who took over power?
1971; Idi Amin
What does NRA stand for and what did it do?
The National Resistance Army. They captured Ugandans capital in 1986 and established a new government.
What does Nigeria's Ethnic Geography look like?
1000s of ethnic groups across Africa. Nigeria has more than 400 ethnic groups.
Many Sub Saharan African countries have extremely high debt payments. True or False?
How or why does debt trap affect poverty?
Causes a debt cycle, debt trap. Money going out to pay interest with less money for healthcare, jobs, education, etc.
What is a debt forgiveness program?
It is a program where poor countries caught in the debt cycle/debt trap have most of their debt forgiven.
How does debt forgiveness help these countries?
It allows poor countries to put money into programs that help the people living there.
Most sub Saharan governments did not have their debt forgiven through the debt forgiveness program. True or False?
False. Most Sub Saharan governments had their debt forgiven.
How much do China and India import from Africa's exports? How much of Africa's imports are from these countries?
18% of Africa's exports go to China and India.
22% of Africa's imports come from China and India.
What does the Debt/GDP ratio mean for smaller countries?
For smaller countries, the debt to GDP ratio means they owe a lot more relative to the size of their population.
What does a high degree of export dependency lead to?
More vulnerable economies
Why is export dependency an issue?
Causes possible supply issues and demand issues leading to vulnerability
What are some of Africa's Natural Resources?
oil production, gas production, diamonds, uranium, copper, manganese, iron ore, gold
What does HIPC stand for?
Heavily Indebted Poor Country Initiative. (The legacy of debt relief)
What was the amount of total foreign debt of HIPC countries in 1999?
457% of exports
What has debt relief done to help countries like Guyana?
Freed up budgets for governments for social spending. Housing, healthcare, education, sanitation, infrastructure.
How much has debt dropped for 35 HIPCs due to debt relief?
dropped from 141 billion to 23 billion as a result of debt relief initiatives
Which country is the latest to benefit from debt relief? What must they do to receive the relief?
Somalia. They must follow reforms and use the freed up money for water resources, healthcare, education and basic infrastructure of cities.
What are TNCs (Transnational Corporations) and what do they do?
Large corporations that are based in semi periphery or core countries and often have control over valuable resources and or the wealthy elite profit, but workers and locals often do not.
What is resource control?
This concept requires us to think critically about who benefits from resource extraction and conversely, who pays the cost
How large is the population in Nigeria?
Nigeria is the 6th largest country in the world by population (214 million)
What is the life expectancy in Nigeria?
60. It is one of the lowest in the world.
Infant mortality in Nigeria is one of the highest in the world. True or False.
Most economies in Sub Saharan Africa are still dependent on export of raw materials. True or False?
What are commodities?
Raw materials that are traded, usually to other countries for processing or manufacturing into more valuable goods. (The profits are usually too low to lift poor countries out of poverty.)
Since 2000, there has been a shift away from reliance of just 1 or 2 commodities in Sub Saharan African countries. True or False.
What is commodity dependence?
Economic dependence on exports of agricultural and mineral raw materials.
List 7 things that contribute to persistent poverty and periphery status in Sub Saharan Africa.
1. Legacies of colonization.
3. Lack of control over resources.
4. Environmental Degradation.
5. Export dependency
6. Corrupt leaders/dictators
7. Political instability
Worldwide, what percent of the population lives in urban areas?
What is the current LEVEL of urbanization in Sub Saharan Africa by percent?
What region of the world has the highest growth RATE of urbanization today?
Sub Saharan Africa
What is the expected growth rate of urbanization in Sub Saharan Africa supposed to exceed by 2030?
Expected to exceed 50%
What does rate of Urbanization mean?
How fast are urban areas growing. How much is the level changing.
What 3 ways can urbanization increase?
1. Rural to Urban Migration
2. Natural Growth
3. Re-Classification of non-urban areas (cities spread out and take over rural areas)
What is the main way most periphery countries grow urbanization?
Urban migration is the main driver of urbanization.
In Sub Saharan Africa, what is the main driver for urbanization?
Natural Growth accounts for more urbanization growth than rural to urban migration.
What problems are caused by rapid urbanization?
Lack of planning and investment in urban areas means many cities in Sub Saharan Africa are overwhelmed.
What are some of the problems seen with rapid urbanization?
1. Inadequate housing. (slums and squatter settlements)
2. Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation
In Sub Saharan Africa there were regions where urban population doubled between 2000 and 2015. TRUE OR FALSE?
What is Urban Africa Risk Knowledge (Urban ARK) ?
a 3 year research and capacity building program looking at processes that define and shape urban risk.
List the 12 issues noted by ARK?
1. Poor quality housing with overcrowding.
2. dirty fuels for cooking and heating.
3. lack of safe, regular, convenient water and sanitation.
4. Lack of services to collect garbage.
5. Large health burden (infections, pollution)
6.Non communicable disease
What percent of the world's population is expected to live in cities by 2050?
What are the main risks of rural to urban migration?
lack of access to services: housing, sanitation, education, jobs.
How fast are cities growing in Sub Saharan Africa?
5% per year. fastest urbanization in the world
What percent of urban population lives in impoverished slums?
What percent of Sub Saharan Africa currently lives rurally? Cities?
60% rural and 40% cities
Why is the urban population exploding in Sub Saharan Africa?
High (TFRs) birth rates in cities and migration from rural areas.
By 2030, what percent of the regions population will be urban?
50% or half the population in 10 years.