The minimum wage lowers unemployment rates. T/F
Correlation is the same as causation. T/F
Inflation is a possible consequence of raising minimum wage. T/F
Critics of capitalism ignore the fact that citizens move between income groups. T/F
What are the requirements for economics?
Scarcity, self-interest, and choice
Opportunity costs are not always monetary in nature. T/F
Macroeconomics and market economics are the two major subdivisions of economics. T/F
The government owns resources in communism. T/F
What are the five questions that an economic system must answer?
What to produce, how to produce it, how much to produce, when to produce, and for whom to produce
Opportunity costs are the value of the next highest cost alternative given up when making a decision. T/F
What is an example of a public good? : Milkshakes, national defense, televisions, or tractors?
What best demonstrates the logical fallacy of if its good for one, its good for all?
Minimum wage increase
Government can solve some of society's ills. T/F
The majority of U.S. farms are owned by corporations. T/F
Only a fraction of every dollar you spend goes to the production sector. T/F
In general, the number of U.S. farms and the size of U.S. farms has been increasing. T/F
The majority of U.S. farms are considered to be small family farms. T/F
More than half of every dollar spent on food in the U.S. home is consumed away from home. T/F
Increased U.S. farm productivity has led to fewer total U.S. farms. T/F
Vertical integration is when one firm owns multiple stages of a production process. T/F
U.S. agriculture has become increasingly less efficient. T/F
What is the result of agricultural trade to U.S. agricultural commodities?
Increased value of commodity
Which of the following are not part of the agricultural supply chain? : Government, marketers, or processors
None of the above
What must happen to make a budget line shift?
What best illustrates the substitution effect of a price change?
Changing points along the same indifference curve
What best illustrates the income effect?
Changing points along a different indifference curve
What is an indifference curve?
Willingness to trade one good for another with constant utility
What is the substitution effect?
Substitute one product for a second due to price change of one good
What is the income effect?
Change in price of a product results in ability to buy more/less of a good
When the income effect occurs, what best describes the utility level?
Along a substitution curve, the marginal rate of substitution varies. T/F
If the price of one good increases while the other stays constant, what happens to utility?
What is a normal good?
A good that consumers buy more of when their income increases (positive coefficients in the income elasticity of demand)
What is an inferior good?
A good that consumers buy less of when their income increases (negative coefficients in the income elasticity of demand)
What is an elastic good?
A luxury good (absolute value greater than one in own price elasticity)
What is an inelastic good?
A necessity (absolute vale of less than one in own price elasticity)
How do you identify a unitary good?
Absolute value of one in own price elasticity
What are substitutes?
Goods used in place of one another (positive coefficients in cross-price elasticity)
What are complements?
Goods used with one another (negative coefficients in cross-price elasticity)
What is Engel's Law?
As disposable income increases, the percentage of income spent on food decreases if all other factors are constant
Perfectly competitive markets have what kind of products?
Long run profits are possible in oligopolies. T/F
Long run economic profits are possible in perfectly competitive situations. T/F
Changes to supply curves in terms of being more elastic/inelastic reflects what?
Changing resource base to be used
Which of the following components of the gross domestic product are productive sectors of the economy? : Government, business investment, or consumer spending
Business investment and consumer spending
Firms that have a pricing decision are operating in a perfectly competitive market situation. T/F
What best describes a monopsony?
Which of the following is not an example of market failure? : Efficiency, externalities, market power, or barriers to entry
A firm in a perfectly competitive market can raise the price and sell more product? T/F
Perfectly competitive markets produce higher quantity at a lower price than other market structures. T/F
A market has a price below equilibrium price. What is true about the market?
Which of the following is associated with economies of scale? : Average variable cost, marginal revenue, or average total cost
Average total cost
Which of the following is not a function of money? : Medium of exchange, easily divisible into smaller parts, or a basis for accounting
Easily divisible into smaller parts
The U.S. agriculture economy has a positive trade balance. T/F
Which of the following is not a goal of macroeconomic policy? : Full unemployment, full employment, stable prices, or economic growth
Which type of unemployment most effects agriculture?
When you purchase gas, what kind of prices do you see?
Why is there a difference in total value when compounded monthly versus compounded annually when the annual interest rate is the same?
Since the interest is compounded more often in the monthly one, more interest is accumulated.
Animal rights is the philosophy that believes that animals should have the same legal rights as humans. T/F
The USDA and the FDA are the federal agencies that are responsible for the inspection of cell-cultured meat. T/F
What is the term used by economists to determine impacts of policy changes to society?
U.S. farm income is expected to increase this year as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. T/F
Which category of food items results in the greatest amount of waste by caloric content?
Fats and oils, then sugars/sweeteners, then grains
Banning of agricultural production practices are often economic welfare decreasing. T/F
Novelty is a barrier to consumer acceptance of cell-cultured meat. T/F
The U.S. food supply chain was able to easily switch from providing food from consumption away from home to at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. T/F
Food insecurity refers to households. T/F