micro test 1 - chapter 1









�Helminths (usually includes protozoa too)





present, appearing, or found everywhere


study of "things" too small to be seen by human eyes without magnification


�are: Ubiquitous, Unicellular or multicellular, Extremely diverse
�Microbes include:
�Bacteria - Bacteriologist
�Viruses - Virologist
�Fungi - Mycologist
�Protozoa - Protozoologist
�Helminths (usually includes protozoa too) - Parasitology
�Algae - Phycolo


�Teeny Tiny
�Lack a nuclei
�Don't have organelles
�Found everywhere
�Reproduce asexually
�Two Kingdoms (Bacteria and Archaea)


�Much larger
�Have a nucleus
�Have organelles
�Found in many places
�Can reproduce asexually or sexually
�4 Kingdoms (Fungi, Plants, Animals, Protozoa)


�Cell walls made with peptidoglycan
�Some lack cell walls completely
Evolutionarily the oldest forms of life


�Cells walls made with various chemicals
�Some lack cell walls completely
�Once thought that these were ancient ancestors, but they are actually more related to eukaryotes than bacteria


A protein-carbohydrate compound that makes the cell walls of bacteria rigid
Cell wall of prokaryotes, but NOT ARCHAEA. Made of a sugar polymer and polypeptide.


�obtain nutrients by excreting chemicals and digesting dead organisms then ingesting the released nutrients


�Depend on other organisms for nutrients and do not
y* provide them any benefit
�Have cell walls made from chitin
Includes two physical forms


Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls.


�Grow as long filaments
�Reproduce sexually and asexual production of spores


�Unicellular and circular (typically)
�Reproduce asexually by budding and some produce spores


Asexual reproductive or resting cell capable of developing into a new organism without fusion with another cell, in contrast to a gamete


�Are Saprophytic, Are Parasitic, Molds, Yeasts


�Are single-celled eukaryotes
�Live freely in water and sometimes in animal hosts
�Mostly reproduce asexually with some sexual reproduction
�Motility achieved via different mechanisms
pheudopods, cillia, flagella, or non motile


�extentions of cellular membrane that pull the organism along


many short structures that wave and push the organism


�Complex structure that pushes cell in the opposite direction of the flagella


rely on hosts to move the organism


�Eukaryotic cells
�Can be unicellular or multicellular
�Categorized based on pigmentation and cell wall composition
�Very diverse group
�Agar is an algae-derived chemical used by microbiologists in nutrient plates


process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches


�Multicellular, often complex, organisms
�Most have extremely complex life cycles involving multiple hosts and varying environments
�"grow" my molting their exoskeleton from larval form to adult form
�Asexual reproduction (proglottids


the process of shedding an outgrown exoskeleton


One of the segments, containing both male and female reproductive organs


�Often just made of protein and nucleic acids (sometimes lipids)
�Obligate parasites (have to have a host cell to replicate)
�Not called asexual reproduction...why not?
�Non-enveloped (naked) virions
�Only made of protein capsid and nucleic

obligate parasites

�(have to have a host cell to replicate)
�Not called asexual reproduction...why not?

�Non-enveloped (naked) virions

Only made of protein capsid and nucleic acids

�Enveloped virions

�Have nucleic acids wrapped in a protein capsid wrapped in a lipid bilayer (envelope)


Outer protein coat of a virus

microbe photosynthesis

�Production of organic material and oxygen from carbon dioxide utilizing solar energy
Microbes existed before plants and therefore made the first oxygen on Earth

microbe Decomposition

�Breaking down dead matter and wastes into simpler compounds which can be used as an energy source

Ideonella sakaiensis

�has a unique ability to grow on PET (polyethylene terephthalate) which is a type of plastic
�Discovered by Kohei Oda and Kenji Miyamoto after collecting old plastic samples


�Use of living organisms and technology to produce consumer goods like foods, drugs, vaccines, etc.

genetic engineering

�the manipulation of genetic components

Recombinant DNA

�Splicing genes from one organism to another
�This is used in human therapies like insulin, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, etc.


�Using microbes to clean up environmental oil spills and toxic pollutants

pathogenic microorganisms

disease causing microbes

�Opportunistic Infections

�Microbes that do that ordinarily cause disease, become infectious when an immunocompromised environment (AIDS, Immunosuppressive drug use, elderly patients, malnutrition, other existing infections

�Nosocomial Infections

�Infections acquired from a healthcare setting (hospital, clinic, nursing facility, hospice, imaging facility, operating room)

�Hospital-acquired infections

�Infections acquired from the hospital environment


Typical Size-0.3-2 mm
Nuclear Membrane-No
Cell Wall-Peptidoglycan
Cytoplasmic Structures-Yes Ribosomes
No Mitochondria
No Chloroplast
Where Found-All Environments


Typical Size-5-50 mm
Nuclear Membrane-Yes
Cell Wall-Not All Have Cell Walls (Cellulose, Chitin)
Cytoplasmic Structures-Yes Ribosomes
Yes Mitochondria
Yes Chloroplast
Where Found-Non-harsh environments


�The study of classifying, organizing, and naming biological specimens
�First devised by Carl von Linne (Linnaeus)

Carl von Linne (Linnaeus)

Father of taxonomy

�Levels of Classification

Domain(Carl Woese), Most Inclusive
Kingdom, (Linnaeus)
Phylum, (Linnaeus)
Class, (Linnaeus)
Family, (Linnaeus)
Genus, (Linnaeus)
Species(Linnaeus) Most Exclusive


�Natural relatedness between groups of organisms (how similar/different they are)

�Morphology and Physical Structure
�Molecular Structures
�Genetic Sequences
�Phylogenic analysis

Carl Woese

�Proposed the 3 domain system in 1977
�Prior to this all bacteria were in the kingdom Monera
�16s rRNA analysis showed differences in some bacteria which caused us to separate them into Eubacteria and Archaea


�Eubacteria - true bacteria
�Archaea - odd bacteria that live in extreme environments (primitive bacteria)
�Eukarya - all have a nucleus and organelles


�Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi
�No kingdoms for Bacteria or Archaea this classification is skipped for the prokaryotes but they have all the other levels.

binomial nomenclature

�Every microbe has two names:
�Genus species
ex:�Staphylococcus aureus
�Escherichia coli
�When writing a report you MUST italicize all scientific names.
�The first time you introduce an organism, you have to write out the complete name. After this you can

Hans Lippershey

�Possibly the inventors of the first microscope

�Hans and Sacharias Jansen (Father and Son)

�Dutch lensmakers
�Possibly the inventors of the first microscope (1595)

Robert Hooke (1635-1703)

�Published Micrographia (1665) - collection of finely drawn microscopic observations of inanimate and animate objects - edge of a razor, tip of a needle, insects, sponges, plates, teeth of a snail
�Coined the term "cell" after monastery cells

�Antoonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

�Dutch linen merchant
�Built his own lenses for viewing microbes
�First to observe living microbes and have written proof of it "animalcules"
�His single lens magnified up to 300X
�Used microscopes for entertainment and helped increase it's popularity

�Schleiden and Schwann - Cell Theory 0 1838

�All living organisms are composed of cells
�Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
�All cells arise from pre-existing cells

�The Spontaneous Generation Theory Debate (1688-1861)

�Most humans believed that life "came" from 3 different processes
�Sexual Reproduction
Progeny created from sexual recombination
�Asexual Reproduction
Progeny created from a single being (mostly identical to mother)
�Spontaneous Generation
Organisms creat

Redi's Meat-n-maggots Experiment

�Redi's Experiment - first evidence that maybe spontaneous generation wasn't a real thing

Needham's Life Gravy Experiment

�Needham concluded that you have to have a life gravy or life force for inanimate objects to suddenly contain life forms (Aristotle suggested this and called it a pneumo)

Spallanzani's Repeated
Life Gravy Experiment

�Spallanzani changed two factors from Needham's experiment.
�Boiled for much longer
�Sealed the openings with wax instead of just porous cork
�Spallanzani concluded three things
�Needham didn't boil long enough to properly kill all the microbes
�There are

Pasteur and the Swan-neck Flasks Experiment

�Pasteur allowed the "life force" people their argument with his swan neck flasks but any microbes from the air would be caught in the U dip and not make it to the flask
�This really sealed up the argument in rejection of the Spontaneous Generation theory

Golden Age of Microbiology (1857-1914)

�The Germ Theory was developed
Microbes can cause disease
�Microbiological techniques were developed for isolation and culturing microbes
Aseptic technique
Isolation and culture techniques
�Beginnings of immunology and medical treatment
Basic theories of

Ignaz Semmelweis

advocated hand washing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another
�Hungarian physician in the 1850s
�Saw that European birth clinics had 25-30% mortality rates due to puerperal fever (uterine infection that is associated wit

Joseph Lister

�Surgeon to develop techniques to reduce wound and surgical infections
�Applied heat to surgical instruments in order to sterilize them
�He also sprayed phenol onto the incision areas
Provided strong evidence of the Germ Theory of DIsease

�Germ Theory of Disease

�Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or bad air

�Robert Koch (1876)

�1st direct experimental evidence of the role of bacteria in causing disease
�Injected mice with Bacillus anthracis cultured from diseased animals
�Developed a series of "rules" to help define the relationship between a specific microbes and a specific di

�Koch's Postulates

�The suspected microbe has to be found in every instance of the disease, but not in any healthy organisms
�The suspected microbe has to be isolated and cultured from diseased hosts
�When that isolated culture is inoculated into a healthy host the same dis

�Edward Jenner (1798)

�Developed the smallpox vaccine
�Cowpox lesions from milk maids to protect against smallpox virus
�Serious ethical issues with his experimentation

Louis Pasteur

�While studying chicken cholera he used old cultures of cholera which were attenuated and lost the ability to cause disease, chickens that were injected with these bacteria were resistant to disease from the non-attenuated bacteria
�Developed the anthrax


Atomic structure: subatomic particles
Chemical bonds: covalent, ionic, & hydrogen bonds
Ionization: anions & cations
Chemical reaction and parts of an equation
Acids/Bases & pH scale
Organic macromolecules:
Types of lipids and basic chemical structure