Art History Final Exam

Eugene Delacroix, Self Portrait, 1837

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Self Portrait as Hamlet, Delacroix, 1821

- construed himself as a follower of Gericault- not a student/follower in official capacity - outside of the studio/training system
- explore way gericault's raft of the medusa influenced his work
- fashioned himself after genius figures
- artistic lineage: never went to rome to study and paint; eventually goes to north africa
- identified with michelangelo as a genius
- painted himself as hamlet
- wants to be viewed as an alienated, tormented figure: alienation from society; identification with unique/intense psychological states, as outsiders - artist's sense of themselves as romantic artists
- tells us how he is positioning himself as a romantic artists
- shakespeare: providing alternative source/tradition artists could mime for their own work; seen as a writer who mixed different genres of lit together- high and low; characters were psychologically complex and conflicted; romantic artists were very interested in the writings of shakespeare
- tells us how he wanted to position himself as an artist, relationship to traditions, which to identify and which to distance himself form

The Barque of Dante and Virgil, Delacroix, 1822

- first major painting of his career
- first painting he exhibited at the salon
- late medieval italian poet - topic of the work
- using dante as alternative to classical source: indicative of his romantic search for sources and models which were not classical antiquity or the italian renaissance; become important sources - becase of their exploration of their interior world of motion, extreme realms of experience
- scene from dante's hell: being guided by ancient poet virgil
- all around them are bodies that are writing in the water, clinging to the side of the boat, tormented figures, figures that have been condemmed
- first pic debuted by delacroix at the salon - mixed review: french government bought the work
- brushwork: real visibility tohis handling of paint
- colorist work

Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi, Delacroix, 1826

- explicitly political work
- missolonghi- city in greece
- painting refers to greek war of independence against the turks
- delacroix has obvious interest in greek war of independence against the turks and greece's struggle to free itself: cause that many liberal western europeans identified with; prominent example of western european figure's engagement with the turks - byron traveled to fight there
- not identifying with the victors but the powerless - more romantic gesture
- not a historical event - depicting contemporary event: sense of time shifts - shift towards contemporary subject matter
- continues commitment to contemporary subjects
- painting itself: modern greece represented by the woman in modern greek dress; part standing, part kneeling on fallen walls of the city - embodiment of this struggle; allegorical figure who represents revolution; ambitious artists depicting contemporary events - struggling with tension: how to devise pictoral language appropriate to modern history painting; sense of contemporary with need of ambitious painting to transcend time and place; combines allegory and realism in this work (evident in the bloodstroked boulders and arm of the dead greek fighter); represents suffering and mortality - includes symbolic components - figure represents Greece and the revolution
- sense of defeat/fall of the city to the turks
- influence of the raft: subjects seem very different - still have fundamentally triangular composition; damaged bodies seen in raft(echoed here by delacroix); unstable foundation for the compostition

Liberty Leading the People by Delacroix 1830

- louis philipe reigned until 1848 and was a poltically turbulent period in french history
- 3 days of fighting in the street in revolution of 1830
- painting images of fighting on the barricades
- identifying with the fighters of the revolution
- liberty - central figure is a woman; allegory to the revolution/liberty; looking to his greece painting as a prototype of central female figure' partially a modern figure, partially allegorical (fully alegorical here); wearing vaguely ancient clothing, carrying tri color flag, wearing fragian cap, combine symbos of nation, liberty, revolution, france
- ways he combines realistic and allegorical
- many figures who represent various social classes who fought together against monarchy
- top hat fiure - represents bourgeoise
- figure with sword and apron, one with blue shirt represents workers
- young boy represents students
- not arbitrary figures: represents joining of different factions of french society - uniting against french monarchy
- wanted to show different factions/groups coming together in the revolution of 1830
- dead and wounded bodies strewn against foreground - violence and sacrifice of the revolution
- delacroix successfully combines allegorical with journalistc
- others critizied because thought too realistic and chaotic
- comapred to raft: pyramidal comp, dead/dying/injured bodies

The Massacre at Chios, Delacroix, 1824

- exhibited in salon of 1824
- part of delacroix's project
- condenses battle into scene in the process of turkish soldiers in process of abducting half naked greek women
- included phrase: see the newspapers of the times
- scene of suffering and death
- no patriotic or moral message here to redeem violence and tragedy of the scene
- enact breakdown of tradition of history painting: figures turned into still life figures - no rhetorical force or meaning, pile of bodies
- massacre of painting - gros
- orientalism
- bodies represent erotic fantasy of non western european world
- mixing together violence and erotic appeal - tupical of orientalist pics: morality and eroticism of the body combined here

Vow of Louis XIII by Ingres, 1824 compared to Delacroix

- contrast btw composed, careful, constrained with the vigorously painted dynamic surface of delacroix's work
- ingres: political past, religious tradition, aesthetic tradition
- delacroix: violence, eroticism, contemporary subjects
- battle between ancient and modern - modes of painting, attitudes towards tradition of thepast, different artistic practices

Delacroix, Self Portrait, 1837

- was a prolific writer - had a journal that was published
- framing his work and identity in terms of idividual struggle and torment
- herotization of the individual - profoundly romantic notions
- suggests inner turmoil and struggle
- turbulent mind needs agitation, to free itself, try 100 different things - sense of inner turmoil and torment produces his work
- delacroix is culmination of the romantic movement in france

Orientalism

- late 20th century term
- describes exoticized depiction of non western european cultures and figures - assert superiority of western europe
- no fixed geographic lcoal orientalist pictures describe - sometimes even spain
- orientalist propositions: place that is distinct from western europe
- bodies represent erotic fantasy of non western european world
- mixing together of violence and erotic appeal - typical of orientalist pictures
- morality and eroticism of th ebody combined

The Snake Charmer, Gerome, 1870

- most well known french orientalist pictures
- great deal of interest in france and other parts of europe in middle east and north africa over course of 19th century
- clear illustration of orientalist painting
- gerome clearly signals the non western european setting - architecture, clothing, decoration, every element meant to signal setting is non western european place
- central subejct: young boy who is a snake charmer
- situating this place as an irrational/mystical place
- incredibly rich setting/rich blue full of pattern and decorative appeal- part of the stereotypes of non western european palces
- decoration, beautiful surfaces, in oppostiont to europe - the substance, the mind
- feminine poses - non western euro cultures with the feminine, laziness
- absence of the passage of time - time stands still
- distance from western europe - regression of time
- foreigners never depicted to show the preservation of the illusion
- illusionistic styule, detail, specificity - illusion of this real world he has preserved
- erotic world, a fantasy, positioning it as superior, but fundamental assertion of superiority of europe underpines it

Death of Sardanapalus, Delacroix, 1827

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Sketches for Death of Sardanapalus, Delacroix, 1827

colorist

Reclining Odalisque, Delacroix, 1827-28

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The Women of Algiers, Delacroix, 1834

- ground oriental
- goes north to africa
- rejection of classical tradition
- how romantic artists look to other cultural models/traditions/sources
- morocco: sketches, notes, etc
- ground orientalist imangination in something more tangible
- grounds this in their ignorance - source of their happiness
- salon 1834: stand in for delacroix as an artist
- see ways he is responding/made adjustments to his work in response to the criticism for his other previous works -excessively violent, erotic, too irrational in their compositions
- clearly articulate interior space
- restrained orientalism - much more positively received than the others

The Lion Hunt, Delacroix, 1855

- painted for major retrospective exhibition: world's fair 1855
- very taken with the theme of the lion hunt
- theme of the hunt: means of associating non western european locales with the violence
- places where unrestrained violence can take place
- fantasy image

Portrait of Gustave Courbet by Nadar

realism
specificity with place

Self Portrait: The Desperate Man, 1843 Courbet

- also did man with a leather belt
- interest in the self, depicting himself in different guises; focus on identity and subjectivity of the artist
- during revolution of 1848: uprising by the working class: monarchy abolished; new democratic government; louis napoloeon was elected president of 2nd republic, weeks later consolidates power in coup, declares himself emperor of france

After Dinner at Ornans, Courbet, 1848-49

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The Stonebreakers, Courbet, 1849

- critics were divided - liberal ones receptive
- figures are breaking stones at side of the road - bottom of socioeconomic ladder
- meant to show that courbet brought these downtrodden figures from the real world into his studio - not professional models
- invited these people from the side of the world
- gives us sense of physicality of the scene
- depicted using very thick brushwork - corresponds to rushness of the scene as if courbet himself is also a physical laborer himself - making a painting is similar to physical labor they were doing
- landscape setting: fills entire expanse of the scene; create sense of confinement/enclosure; level of gepographic specificity (home region); young boy implies inescapability of the work

Burial at Ornans, Courbet, 1849-50

- most heavily criticized
- his home region
- actual site depicted here is a cemetary adjacent to his family land
- funeral of his great uncle
- large scale: 20ft long
- figures: not idealized, does not conform his representations of urban figures to french stereotypes, not made to express felling/sentiment, unsentimentally painted - not serious, noble, picturesque, jolly; criticism he painted ugly subjects - and the first thing he saw, just as he saw it; lack of idealization to his figures; refusal to conform to cliches and stereotypes
- funeral itself: brutual, unsentimental parts of death itself; hole for body is at center of work; not an uplifiting message or emphasis of spiritual over the bodily
- red figures are church officals: don't look like spiritiual figures, lack of clear sense of emotional or moral gravity/cohesiveness; disconnected, distracted, unfocused
- frieze like arranegement, seem arbitrarily cut off, lacking integrity/coherence
- no clues where to look , how to feel, what to take from the work/artist's attitude towards subject matter
- a cold image of nothingness
- thick, large, smears of black paint - visibility of brushwork, size of work, communicate that the production of the work involved physical labor on his part - takes proccess of painting into an act of labor

Caricature of Burial at Ornans, Bertall, 1851

- of the funeral work
- radical simplification of courbet's composition
- without organization or hierarchy
- no compositional structure at all
- ideological/democratic composition

The Meeting or Bonjour Monsieur Courbet, Courbet, 1854

- Courbet on right
- shown with his best patron in green and the servant in brown
- depicts as if they are meeting by chance on a country road in france
- independent, confident, bowing to no one - his patron bows to him
- supported by cultured, wealthy, private individuals
- declare independence from salon, state patronage, forge a path through private patronage
- his patron's support was important to courbet
- courbet could paint what he wanted without having to be concerned if they would sell - measure of financial security and independence

Universal Exposition of 1855

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The Painter's Studio: A Real Allegory Summing Up Seven Years of My Artistic Life, Courbet, 1855

- retrospective of his pavilion
- retrospective within a retrospective
- landscape, self portraiture, the nude - combine subjects done so far
- center of it all - he is in act of painting
- process and product of his painting
- back somewhat turned - act of independence and defiance
- young boy - maybe young stonebreaker
- landscapes and nudes are 2 more subejcts he pays attention to
- looks forward and backward
- title: realist, ambitions of large scale allegorical painting, realist with ambitions
- attendance at private exhibition and sales were bad
- retreats from socially charged subjects - concludes this great period of production

Chateau of Chillon, Courbet, 1874

- how his career has come to an end
- end was quite dramatic and not happy
- 1870: napoloeon 3 is defeated in franco prussian war
- frequent subject he painted during exile
- chateau was a prison
- fitting subject for someone who had been in prison

Rienzi, William Holman Hunt, 1849

- commitment to representing truth to nature in the work
- considered an immortal
- full painting helps us understand world better
- figure from 14th century italy
- truth to nature - how he takes such incredible care in delinearting all of the details of the scene
- detail/illusionism
- attentiveness to figures in the scene
- high level of specificity
- attention to detail
- not just nature in natural world but also observable world
- immersion in facts of the scene
- desire that there be accuracy in describing/depicting historial subjects
- truth to nature
- rendering the truth of nature - visible facts of the world
- undermines overall illusionism in the scene: as much attention to background objects as objects in the foreground: almost intentional
- identified with early renaissance and medieval art: pre raphaelite brotherhood
- emphasis on moral and spiritual components of art
- study of nature, attentiveness of nature, artifices of art

Strayed Sheep/Our English Coasts, Hunt, 1852

- hunt's form of realism
- attention to every minute detail of the scene
- immediate foreground: see every single leaf, twig, furrow, tuft of sheep, every petal
- careful attention to visual facts of the scene
- invisible/extremely fine brushwork
- responsible for ways he can render details of the scene
- high level of detail has religious component to pre raphaelites: devotion to nature, representing observable world in all its detail
- stray sheet - bible
- depicts england's southern coastline: meant as warning to england of possible invasion by france
- painting has nationalist component to it as well

The Awakening Conscience, Hunt 1853

- very specific moral message
- not explicitly christian in subject but implicitly so
- 2 contemporary figures
- works not just explicitly religious in nature
- image that references novel from dickens
- subject is young woman that ran off
- theme of the young woman who goes astray instead of pursuing marriage and family, tempted into imoral behavior, engages in adultery/prostititiuon
- subject is a sexually open woman; represented in the midst of a moral crisis and regeneration
- to conveyher suffering originally gave her a very pained expression to convey tragedy of the path she has chosen
- was so troubling the original owner of the work wanted it modified soit wold be less emotional to look at
- get sense of the weight/fundamental themes of the work
- moment: making a crucial choice; sitting on man's lap; slowly rising form his lap; stirring conscience - movement of her moral regeneration, conscience stirred by light coming in
- distances herself from the man and her fallen life
- painting has symbolic elements: chastitiy, moral sin
- picture above piano (woman in adultery), scene under table - bird threatened by cat, analogy of woamn being morally threatened by the an - extended paw of cat is like extended arm of man - parallels btween the 2
- any aspect of the scene is represented in dizzying parallel
- patterns on carpet, careful woodwork carvings, patterns on clothing and decor, textures, surfaces, etc
- part of commitment to truth of nature - nature is a divine order - depict the observable world is depciting divine order, abundance of visual information in the painting

Jesus in the House of His Parents, John Everett Millais, 1850

- very controversial when exhibited
- members of royal academy against pre raphaelites expressed outrage against the group vai their criticisms of this work
- jesus is in carpenter shop of joseph;holding out left palm up; cut himself, drops of blood dripping, wounds in hands and feet are pre moments to his future crucifixion; hunt carried out extensive research on the subjects he depicted in his works - pursuit of accuraccy
- visited actual carpenter shop - make sure depictions of tools were accurrate and modeled exposed arms and legs of joseph the carpenter after those of a real carpenter
- heard of painted after real sheep heads
- incredible amounts of detail - nothing left out al all - related directly to the controversy this painting was subject to
- why controversial? - bc the work depicts a religious subject; subjected to literalism that religious subject matter shouldn't have, religious figures should be portrayed in ideal subject matter
- commoness and lowliness- out of keeping with how subejcts of religious nature should be depicted

Portrait of John Ruskin, Millais, 1853-54

- prominent defender of pre raphaelites
- prominent art critic
- giant in 19th century art history
- defense of pre raphaelites helps to stem the tide of criticism that they faced

The Annunciation by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1850

- wanted to revive religious painting
- homage to late medieval italian poet
- medieval and early renaissance poet - best period ever
- gabriel appearing before amry - feet floating above ground, she is recoiling from him
- stylistic difference: hyperillusionism of hunt and millais is absent here
- figure of mary based on rosetti's sister christina
- face rendered in detail as well as hair
- absence of detail in scene
- antiperspectalism: floor seems to tip up, not receeding back from walls, rejection of linear perspective here
- dryness to paint
- make painting look like early italian fresco painting

The Long Engagement, Arthur Hughes, 1859

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Work, Ford Madox Brown, 1852-65

- mroal value of hard work is the subject of the painting
- brown - took over 10 years: production of the scene he reflects the themes of it - making the painting was a work of significant labor on his part
- not an actual pre raphaelite but shared their principles and beliefs
- meant to depict all manners of work
- preforming this task with energy, mobility, morally strengthening activity
- not just physical labor - 2 figures on the right, both are prominent: reverent and theorist - their kind of labor also being celebrated by the artist
- compendium of modern urban life and modern labor
- bright summer sunlight - tried to render by painting the work outdoors

John Singleton Copley, Self Portrait 1780-1784

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Copley

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Ezekiel Goldthwait by Copley 1771

- wealthy merchant
- professional/merchant classes avidly sought portraits of themselves to establish social standing, convey success, communicate good standing and character
- identifying one's self as socially and economically powerful: social status, strong financial standing, etc
- as wealth grows, the demand for portrait grows

Mrs. Ezekiel Goldthwait by Copley 1771

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Portrait of Paul Revere by Copley 1768-70

- well known for revolutionary portraits
- settings and body language specific to the sitter
- seen as having a sense of psychological anteriority; seen as animating the subject
- knew revere well, intimate, very close to the sitter
- clarity and rigidity of figures - airless
- considered the peak of american colonial portraiture

Watson and the Shark by Copley, 1778

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Death of General Wolfe, by Benjamin West 1770

- born in colonies
- wanted to be history painter
- went to europe to learn - first american to study art in italy
- moves to england - top echelon
- becomes painter to the king
- pinacle of the art world of england
- pioneer of strem of ambitious colonial and american artists
- move to europe and build their careers here
- trained in his studio many of the major american artits of the late 18th early 19th century
- crucial bridge between american artists and europe
- way american artists could further their training
- depcits battle of quebec
- done before the american revolution

Death of General Warren at Battle of Bunker Hill, 1786 by John Trumbull

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Death of Jane McCrea, John Vanderlyn 1804

- first american to study in paris
- independence supporter kidnaped and killed by native american british allies during revolution
- immortalizes particular revolutionary hero
- commemorates american sacrifice
-key moment in american history
- paris- deeply influenced by david's history paintings and by neoclassicism more broadly
- represented this in the language of davidian history painting

Mountain Sunrise, Catskills, by Thomas Cole 1826

- founder of american landscape movement
- sense of changing perceptions of landscape painting in american art society
- not much of a public for landscape paiting - not prestigious to own; love of nature for its sake not common
- post revolutionary period: attitudes change
- rise of landscape painting in europe
- american attitudes towards landscape/nature change - appreciation for american landscape/uniqueness - written about in religious and spiritual terms - new set of associations/new kind of meaning
- concerns about destruction of american wilderness due to rise of industry - appreciate the wilderness
- nostalgia for pre-industrial colonial america: manifested in pristine landscape
- symbol of the new nation and sign of american identity
- vastness, imensity, drama of nature
- open expanse, sunrise; landscape meant to invite contemplation; nto a very careful study of the scene; moral uplifting effect on the viewer: saw landscape and wilderness in religious terms; wilderness as symbol of america's differentness from europe; pristineness of american nation: better than europe

Lake with Dead Trees by Cole 1825

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Kindred Spirits by Asher B. Durand, 1849

- hudson river school artist
- homage to thomas cole
- 2 figures: cole and william cole bryant (Poet) shown contemplating the landscape together
- poet wrote famous poem for cole before he went to europe
- pristine wilderness of american landscape is something the new country has that europe does not - implied in the poem

Voyage of Life Cycle, by Cole 1840-42

- childhood: infant accomanied by an angel
- youth: child driving his own boat with angel watching
- old age: older person being taken to heaven by angel
- elevate landscape as a genre which drew artists
- grow audience and painters: flourishing of landscape painting in 19th century america

Interior of a Wood by Durand, 1850

- head of huson river school after cole dies
- began as engraver, becomes major landscape painter
- radically difference conception than what we saw from cole
- landscape painting represents the artist's conceptions and ideals of nature
- specificity of the landscape
- more interested in the details: botanical particualrs
- all over compositions
- close point of view

In the Woods by Durand, 1855

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Ingres

- exemplary figure of linear painting
- longest lived and most celebrated student of david
- becomes representative of academic painting
- few characteristics align him with romantic artists
- orientalism
- key shift in french 19th century - evident in work of ingres- shift in notion that idea beauty can be represented in male and female body -> more and more exclusively through representations through female form
- south of paris
- studied with david in paris
- wins rome prize
- after wins prize but before goes to rome, paints portraits
- goes to rome and stays for 4 years
- considered one of david's greatest pupils
- continuing tradition of davidian neoclassicalsim

The Ambassadors of Agamemnon Visiting Achilles, 1801 by Ingres

- won the rome prize with this work
- archilles being visited by the representatives of agamenon- pleading to rejoin the battle against the trojans
- in between ambassadors
- scene evoking achilles being caught between private and public world- private pleasures and public obligations
- makes clear his mastery of neoclassical pictoral vocabulary- telling story through gestures and postures, male body as ideal narrative unit, arrangement of figures as if on a stage
- departs from david's model- elongation and distortion of the figures (not anatomically correct); gives the bodies a graceful and sensual contour; sensuous distorition of human body is key feature of his work/career
- reflects tremendous influence of david and also the departure from the model at early stage in his career
- reflects tremendous influence of david and also the departure from the model at early stage in his career
- focus on the classical male nude - short lived phenomenon - devotes most of his artistic efforts to the female nude

Napoleon on His Imperial Throne, by Ingres, 1806

- maximize sense of napoleon's power
- holding hand of charlemagne and other hand is sceptor of charles v (symbol of french monarchy)
- icon painting one would worship
- detailed rendering of textures, patterns, surfaces - details of fabrics, surfaces of materials
- napoleon did not like this portrait - too obvious, too explicit in his claims to power
- even though work seen as culmination of neoclassicao tradition in france, is specialty was not hisotry paintings or its large scale; produced some allegorical works; tended to produce smaller scale works - portraits or paintings that are more anicdotal; best suited to his highly finished execution and intricate renderings

Mademoiselle Riviere by Ingres, 1805-06

- two of his most well known portraits
- mother and daughter
- incredible attention to lucious, luxe surfaces and textures
- details of the fringe, contrast between that and velour of the couch
- transparency of her veil
- details of the wood
- beautiful fur, glint on trim, transparency of the neckline
- ingres is fixated on these kinds of details
- pronounced anatomical distortions of the figure:length of the arm on the couch comapred to arm on body - willful distortion of the body; infuses the work with sensual beauty and grace through the distortion of the body

Madame Seriziat by David

comparison to Madame Riviere

Jupiter and Thetis, Ingres, 1811

- lack of interest in integrating various parts
- maybe why he didn't take on multi figure narrative painting - compositions not so narratively grounded
-some parts with tremendous detail, others not so much
- elongated line - arabesque - contour to represent female body
- ways he parts from david's neoclassical model
- much less sculptural conception of the female body
- defiance of david's emphasis on clarity and simplicity
- distortions become a criticism

Vow of Louis XIII by Ingres, 1824

- first major success in paris
- shows the 17the century french monarch louis 13
- placing ___ of france under the watch of the virgin
- significance for contemporary audiences

The Apotheosis of Homer by Ingres, 1827

- various artistic figures - poets, painters, musicians, so on, represent western cultural traditions as it develops
- very hierarchical tradition
- descends from homer (founder) through renaissance, to 17th century painters and writers
- stresses continuity of certain values/artistic models over time
- continuity of the art of the ancient past and subsequent centuries
- asserts absolute authority of the classical tradition
- working to uphold the classical tradition - ingres belives it
- ideally seated to hang in the louvre - repository of the western artistic tradition
- howerver, tradition seems to stop in the 17th century - every figure is from the past

Valpincon Bather by Ingres, 1808

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Ingres, the Great Odalisque, 1814

- Salon of 1819
- odalisque = woman in a harem
- appears frequently in orientalist paintings - represents this fantasy of sexual plenty for men
- patterns on the curtain
- decorative items seen - oriental
- silk, feathers, jewels rendered in remote detail - fine brush, paint very thickly, painted with glaze for glassy finish
- brushwork: naturalizing her as object of visual pleasure
- impossibly tiny waist - back is way too long, arm reaches impossibly far
- see backside, breast, and face
- completely realistic anatomically
- divergent reactions: some thought body was epitome of beauty; upset about the distortions to her form; outside any narrative/mythological context; simply a nude woman on display - exhibited at salon: works like this had been done for private patrons

Odalisque and Slave, Ingres, 1842

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The Turkish Bath, Ingres, 1862

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Louis-Francois Bertin, Ingres, 1832

- pursued portrait painting
- significant parts of his body of work
- businessman of the high bourgeoise
- self-confidence and prosperity of french middle class of the time
- sense of psychological presence here - rare in his work: interiority of the figure comes through because he was a male figure; clothing, decor, jewelry not operating in this - no seductions like other pictures

The Comtesse d'Haussonville, Ingres, 1845

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Madame Moitessier, Ingres, 1856

Raphael and the Fornarina, Ingres, 1814

- portraiture practice
- portraits of historical figures
- great italian
- 3 versions of it
- raphael and his mistress
- raphael is entranced not by the mistress herself but by his painting of her - ode to the enthrallment one can feel infront of a painting

Paolo and Francesca, Ingres, 1819

- many versions of this subject - 18 versions
- all identical moment in this story
- from Dante's inferno
- contemporaries of dante's included in the inferno
- intended to paint a series of works of the narrative of paolo and francesca (cycle) but was always trapped by this moment
- opening moment in this tale: not ideal bc not enough info to make sense of the scene - never moves past this first scene
- fuse together so that they are almost a single form
- various elements in the scene change - pose of lovers always stays the same

View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicephore Niepce, 1827

- first surviving photo
- shows a view from his window
- exposure took more than 8 hours
- joined forces in his research with Daguerre

Still Life, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, 1837

- french contribution to invention of photograpy
- first surviving
- fascinating, peculiar still life
- unqiue and unduplicatable
- on metal plates
- announced invention in 1839, presented to french government, manuals published
- vast majority of people did not have time/money/skill to do this on their own
- people could go to photographic studios and have their photos taken
- can buy them - not radically expensive
- incredibly detailed images
- when viewing, have to shift yourself, catches light just right

The Pencil of Nature, Clover, William Henry Fox Talbot, 1844-46

- left to right tonally - negative
- photographic technology that eventually wins out daguerretype
- paper based photography in england 1939
- called calotype - or talbit types
- eventually becomes basis for subsequent tech
- publishes a book: pencil of nature: first photographically illustrated book, about method he invented, various uses of photography, nature drawing itself

Talbot, The Pencil of Nature, Articles of China

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Daguerreotypomania, Caricature, 1839

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Daguerreotype Studio, 1843

- so many people flocked to these studios
- charles baudelaire wrote about the craze to be photographed: society rushing like narcisist to contempalte its image; calls them sun worshippers - back to notion of photograhpy being grounded in light
- notions of photographs - contested issue - not seen as images that people produced so much as nature producing itself through the action of light
- exposure time 15 mins, very bright light, commerical success
- very small portraits
- studio had all sorts of props - imitate painted portraits of people, refinement, elevate social status of figures being represented

Carte-de-Visite Sheet 1855

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Carte-de-Visite of Napoleon III and Family, 1855

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The Moon, Draper

- identity of photography as factual record of the visible world
- enthralling to the people in the sciences and in medicine
- all of the existing techniques of pictoral illustration paled in comparison to the photographs ability to provide the true retina of the scientist
- photography as supplement to human vision
- see world in new ways but also understand/know the world in new ways too

Colossal Figure at Abu Simbel, Frith, 1857

- one of most common forms of photography
- could purchase photos of places/monuments prof photogs had produced
- frith was one of the first to capitalize on place photography
- 3 trips to middle east in 1850s
- middle east, french/british colonies, archaelogy discoveries, biblical sites
- enormously successful/profitable photo printinf form: large, expensive, deluxe albums, large prints, economic prints, illustrated bibles, wrote book about travels and photographs, illustrated with photographs he took on his trips
- essentially saying: photographs never lie; truth is unquestionable; seen as a distinct kind of image; fundamentally different form other kinds of visual images; direct trace of the scene it was representing; have tremendous capacity for authentication/serving as evidence
- sense actual were in these locales
- text he wrote was very orientalist - lots of stereotypes
- photographs meant to authenticate stereotypes

Study of a Nude Woman, 1855

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Galloping Horse, Muybridge, 1878

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Man Running, Muybridge, 1880

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Linear Graph of Man Running, Marey

- inspirted by muybridge's motion studies
- helped develop other photographic techniques for imaging motion
- could record all the stages of a body in motion in a single photograph
- produces linear graphy of human body in motion

Sir John Herschel, Julia Margaret Cameron, 1867

- photography as an equal to other art forms
- influence of photographer is objective- what role does photographer have in renering this scene - how is this a work of art
- notion of photographer as an artist
- professional photography became associated with commerce
- those who pursued it as something akin to art - called amateurs; not as income generating profession; pursued as passion divorced from commerce
- emphasis on trying to illicit the phase of the figure through the photo
- parts in focus, parts not - trademark feature
- using photography to create evocative effects - even poetic images

Shadow of the Cross, Cameron, 1865

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Venus Chiding Cupid Deriving Him of His Wings, Cameron

Family and friends in costume acting out various scenes
Photography is not evidentiary
As a picture in and of itself
Not valid because of a truth it tells us about visible world
Can image mythological, literary scenes
Can see streaks and chemical fluid
Photography allowed women into its practices more than other mediums At this time, not considered an art Photography can be practiced at home One more activity for women to amuse themselves with Raise photography to levels of an art form

Two Ways of Life, Rejlander

Try to elevate photography
Model photography after painting
Produce photographs that were explicitly literary or allegorical
Adopty certain procedures
Sketching out compositions, posing models, rather than photographing scenes found in the real world
Most famous one he produced
England
Well postiitoned to turn mechanicla medium into an artistic one
Classical garb
Called 2 ways of life - allegorical image of choice between good and evil, work and idleness
Right - depravity and death
Left- virute, wisdom
Center- father figure whose sons have emabrked on this path
Produced by method called combination printing Takes negatives and collages them together to produce a single image/scene Splice together/collage negatives to create a tableau/scene Produce any kind of scene photographers want Doesn't have to be found in the real world or realistic
Caused a scandal Defied unwritten rules of photography Contradicts idea of photography as a medium Transforms photography into an artifice
Nude/partially nude figures

Fading Away, Henry Peach Robinson

Another painter turned photographer
One of the leading voices in england for the cause of art photography
Produced by first sketching out compostion
Combo printing to create the composition he had made
Depicting a deathbed scene - caused a scandal
Believed to have represented a real deathbed scene So strong were viewers in inherent veracity/truth telling nature that when audience learned this was a posed scene, felt manipulated/lied to Photographer had defied basic identity of photography as a medium Had assumed this was a basic deathbed scene

Kodak Camera and Advertisement

Mostly people engaged as viewers/consumers of photographs
Not until late 19th century that people started to take photographs themselves
Shift takes place - tech develops so people become photographers themselves
Kodak box - very easy, pre loaded with film for 100 photos
Once done, sent the entire thing to the factory - they developed film and reloaded camera with new roll, sent it all back to you
You press the button, we do the rest
Taking photographs became seperated from the first time from dark room development
Did not need the knowledge to develop photographs
Made taking pics much more popular/more widespread phenomenon
Called Eastman company - produced camera A photographic notebook Photography brought within reach to everyone Preserve a record of things seen only once in a lifetime
New notion of photography Record notions that have long passed Record things you want to have a memory of
Photography enters people's lives in a much more personal way Personal moments visually permanent

Frontispiece for the second edition of Marc-Antoine Laugier's Essay on Architecture, 1755

- artisticness of greece and rome is the ideal and should be the ideal for contemporary art and architecture
- profound interest in understanding this
- call to return architecture to a classical model
- simplicity and restraint - shape architecture of the period
- pamphlet he wrote
- this image was the frontispiece for it - very famous image in history of architecture
- succinctly communicate his theory of architecture
- see the muse of architecture - on the right - holding instruments and reclining on ionic column, is pointing at a hut
- hut is feature of all architectural writings - meant to summarize the primitive origins of architecutre; depicted as classical building; situates greek temple as origins of architecture ( rendering the hut as greek temple - greek architecture is the origin of all architecture)
- suggesting that the structure of the greek temple is so essential that it is the first structure and is grounded in nature itself; architecture owes all that is ideal to the greeks
- ground new architecture in reason and the logic of structure
- upright columns, sloping interior, entablature: everything else is presented as embellishment/supplementary; essence of architecture and everything else should be stripped from it
- call against excessive ornamentation
- ground arts in essential rationality of people, clarity of art abnd form, art and architecture should have a reform oriented purpose

Portrait of Winckelmann, Angelika Kaufmann, 1764

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Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece, Ionic Order J.L. Leroy, 1758

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Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments in Greece: The Temple of Minerva, Details of the Columns and Ionic Capitals

- combines drawings of actual ruins with drawings of reconstructions of monuments that don't exist anymore in their totality
- intertwines discussions with those about greek society - unity in all these aspects of ancient greece
- all part of one ideal world

Sainte-Genevieve Church, Paris, Jacques-Germain Sufflot

- mid 18th century neoclassical architecture in france
- began as a church
- rebuilding an ancient church of paris's patron saint
- being built for her remains - jey role in coverting french monarchy to christianity, invaded paris from atila the hun
- Louis 15
- design published in 1857, construction following year
- corinthian columns on facade
- architect was continually experimenting
- process of designing was an experiment
- also designed plaza in front mimicing ancient greek ampitheater

Pantheon, Rome Italy 126 AD

- pantheon in paris takes some facade/elements from this
- neoclassicism
- took ancient roman temple as a model for 18th century french church

Ancient Greek Ampitheatre

- use church for public gathering and religious purposes
- imitating of the form of ancient greek architecture - see how important classical architecture is for building in the late 18th century
- growing call for monarchy to put more attention into everyday parts of everyday life
- renewal/regneration of the public realm
- went back and forth between religious and secular building - remains a secular building
- key intersection between enlightenment and architecture
- debate/discussion abt role/design of buildings on people and society more broadly
- what would public buildings of an engaged citizenry look like

Place de la Concorde, Paris 1755

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The Death of Louis Capet in Revolution Square, 1794 by Isidore-Stanislas Helman

- shows empty pedastale where statue once was - torn down
- revolutionary government put a guillotine there
- image depicting the beheading of king louis 16
- here in palace commissioned by louis 15 that this grandson louis 16 and marie antoinette were killed too
- thousands of others too - reign of terror
- robespierre government- square gets new name - louis 15 square - square of harmony and agreement
- reconciliation/healing of french society
- changed name a few more times
- growing demand that monarchy needed to put more attention into public buildings and public works buildings
- improve quality of life for citizenry and improve their tastes
- shows how the particulars of urban space captured the enlightenment thinkers such as voltaire
- enhancing and improving the life of citizens
- type of urban renewal doesnt come for about 100 years -s eeds of this now

Comedie Francais by Victor Louis

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Cenotaph for Isaac Newton

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Design for a French National LIbrary, Boullee

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Royal Salt Works by Claude Nicolas Ledoux

- more utopian and publicly oriented buildings
- commissioned for build new salt works
- opportunity for radial series on experimental and utopian designs
- each person's professional contribution/skills define them
- what they contribute to this ideal society

Death of Marat, David, 1793

a. Arch capable of reflecting philosophical ideas, ways people interact w one another
b. Arch called in service of new gov bodies and to communicate abstract notions (and bring them to reality) to represent in physical form the ideals that french rev were fought for
c. Painting was used to visually represent French rev to public
d. Marat and Bara meant to give visual form to rev ideals
i. Part of rev iconography
ii. Translating concepts like martyrdom and ideal citizenship into painting
iii. These were painted in order to be processed in parades
1. One of my politically charged scenes during rev
2. Festivals/processions meant to inspire patriotic feeling
3. Entailed temp architectural structures
4. Some of most interesting arch designed were for non-permanent or never built spaces

Death of Bara, David

Images of the Festival of Federation

- grandest and most impressive pageant put on by revolutionary government
- storming of bastille- start of rev in 1789, freed some of the king's enemies
- year after was this revolutionary pagaent; in paris in eiffel tower space, elaborate, celebrate est of constitutional monarchy, oath to constitutional monarchy taken here - louis 16 took oath here and marie antoinette spoke; area spacce based on form of ancient roman circuses - triumphal arch at the end of the area

Temple of Equality, Durand and Thiebault 1794

- effect of rev on institutions and training of architects
- academy of architecture
- 1793 was abolished: gov had series of public competitions to build public buildings to reflect importance of engaged citizenry in post rev french society; open to anyone, reflected anti-elitsm of rev gov't
- 1794: bunch of different competitions and proposals submitted; convey desires and fantasies to remake french society - some practical, others not; speaks directly to belief in importance of arch society to shape beliefs/perceptions of gov/relationships to one another/sense of palace
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