Art History 3

Universal Exposition, Paris 1900

- Cultural accuracy of each nations display from Western perspective- indicated a clear world order
* The Persian Pavilion
* Paris Exposition: Ottoman Pavilion, Paris,1900
* Turkish Cafe, Universal Exposition,1867


The representation of Asia, especially the Middle East, in a stereotype way that is regarded as embodying a colonist attitude.

Academic Art

- Followed the conservative principles of the French Academic
- Based on Classical Art
- Exhibited in the Salons

Pre-Raphaelite ( Pre-Raphael)

- Started in England with the founding of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 1848
- Looked back to the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance for gentle beauty, naturalism, and moral spirituality

Romantic Landscape

John Constable, " Painting is a science and should be pursued as an inquiry into the laws of nature".


Emerged as a technology because it fulfilled particular social demands of the early 19th century

In the early 19th century

- Rapidly growing urban centers
- Industrial Revolution- Moderns concepts of technological process and mechanization
- Desire to contain (and document) nature and landscape
- Rise of bureaucratic institutions interested in documentation and classification

Camera obscura

beginning of photography
1st photographer- Louis-Jacques Daguerre
1st image Daguerreotype - The Artist's Studio


- Was not considered an art form until 1902
- Had a strong association as a technical process that involved a machine, not the hand of an artist
- The value of art was contained in the hand and eye of the artist as the source of creativity and genius

Julia Margaret Cameron

- One of the first creative photographers
- Intended to use photography as an artistic form

Realism ( Naturalism)

Representing familiar things as they actually are
- Commitment to paint the modern world honesty
- Created as a rejection to Romanticism and Neoclassical styles
- A reaction to the invention of photography
- Early paintings carried a social critique or po

(as an art movement - late 19th century to the 20th century)

Style or movement in the arts that aims to depart significantly from classical forms.
- Artists wanted to portray modern subjects: leisure life, the city, the point of view from the bourgeois

Modern Artists generally question traditional ideas of:

- How art is defined
- What constitutes art
- How art is made
- Dialogue with-and often rejected- the styles and movements that came before them

( Edouard Manet)

- Breaks all compositional rules. No sense of space
- Two dimensional figures
- Blatant nakedness. No classical nudes based on mitology

Edouard Manet, Olympia 1863

- Removed all academic technique. Appears to be a two dimensional surface
- Bold contour lines
- Not based in the Classical or the Renaissance or the idea of beauty
- Facial features not idealized. Direct gaze


- First exhibited in 1874 at an exhibition space separated from the Salon
- Critics thought the completed works looked liked preliminary " impressionism

First gallery space, 1874 ( Impressionist Art)

Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, Engravers ( Paris , France)
- Work was for sale
- Painted small commas of pure, unblended colors one next to another
- Painted outdoors ( en plein air) to capture the appearance of the light as it changed
- 1841-

Post - Impressionism

- Term created to identify new trends and reactions against Impressionism
- Artist became dissatisfied with limitations of Impressionism
- Paintings made with more formal order and structure
- Use a colorful pallet similar to impressionist


A term derived from the French military meaning "vanguard". Artists or concepts of a new, experimental, or radical nature for the time

Georgia O'Keeffe (Mother of American modernism")

The only American to show her work with the French impressionist.
Created sensitive portrayals of women and children

Pointillism or divisionism (George Seurat)
" A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte

- juxtaposing small strokes of pure, unblended color in an almost abstract arrangement.
- Used only eleven colors in three values
- Optical mixture - light waves and human eye mix colors placed next to one another
- From a distance of about 9 ft the pictu


Thickly applied pigments

Japanese Woodblock prints

- each print required the collaboration of four experts: the designer, the engraver, the printer, and the publisher
- each color used its own carved block
- polychrome painting

Paul Cezanne, Still life with basket of Apples

- Rejection of the traditional rules of perspective

Modern Art in Europe and The Americas 1900-1945

- World War I (1914-1918) significantly transformed European politics, economics, and culture
- 1929 NY stock-market crash - Great Depression for much of the world, Communism-fascism, and liberal-domestic capitalism struggled for dominance as political id


Revolutionary developments in art and culture
- Rejection of previous artistic styles
- Commitment to radical innovation

Pre-World War I Art (The Great war 1914-1918)

Three artistic styles:
- Expressionism - Exaggerates aspects of form to evoke subjective emotions. Stresses the artist's emotional attitude toward himself and the world
- Abstraction:
- Cubism: Replicated the actual process of perception, during which peo

Les Fauves ("Wild beasts")

capture the sense of forceful color and impulsive brushwork in their paintings, which conveyed a new intensity of visual experience

German Expressionism

- Greater sense of emotional extremes
- Spontaneous approach
- Examines the human existence
Kathe Kollwitz- Woman dead with child, etching and drypoint


- Started by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and Georges Braque (1882-1963)
- The most influential period in early modern art
- Flattened pictorial space
- Multiple perspectives within a single picture plane
- Fractured forms

Analytic Cubism (1910-12)

- Small facets of a dissected or "analyzed object are reassembled to evoke that same object
- Images reduced to series of overlapping planes, mostly in near-monocromatic browns, grays, or blacks

Maria Gutierrez Blanchard - The lute player

Synthetic Cubism - Subject pared-down to tis essential aspects. Expressed by means of views seen from a variety of perspectives

Sonia Delaunay-Terk

- Fauvist color mixed with Analytic Cubism
- "Simultaneity" - Areas of intense different colors in the paintings where no... dominates any other. Creates unity

American Modernism

- Some American artists worked in abstract or Modern ways, most preferred a naturalistic approach
- Alfred Stieglitz chose a different approach in photographing Ny in poetic images of romanticized urban scenes


avoids any reference to the natural world or narrative subject matter


- Anti-art. Challenge definitions of art
- Stood in radical opposition to German Expressionism
- Created from a reaction of the brutality of WWII
- Felt that Expressionism had failed at examining the human existence
- Not united by a common style, but rej

American Modernism

Pictoralist photographs - rendered like a painting with ski;;fully constructed compositions


A group of photographers that believed photography was an art form
Founded by Alfred Stieglitz and 11 other photographers

The Bauhaus ( Germany 1919-1933)

- Most influential school of modernist art and design in the twentieth century
- Found by German architect Walter Gropius
- Art taught with theoretical activity pf an art academy ( fine art) combined with the practical activity of an arts and crafts schoo

The Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)

- Founded in 1929
- Personal collections formed the museum
- The first museum in NY dedicated to exhibiting and collecting the work of contemporary artists

Installation MoMa's first exhibition

- Cezanne
- Gauguin
- Seurat
- Van Gogh

Why white walls in museums?

- Appropriate context to display Modern Art
- The room remains invisible while the work becomes the focal point
- High lights the formal qualities of artwork

The Whitney Museum of american Art

Founded 1931
20th - 21th century - living American artists


Desire to set free and explore the imaginative and creative power of the the mind
Instrospective and psychological

Art since 1945

Abstract Expressionism
What are the origins?
What are the different styles?
How and Why did Abstract Expressionism?

Origins of Abstract Expressionism in mid - 1940

- Many American artists worked for the WPA (1935-43) - experienced poverty, radical politics
- Europe filled with totalitarian regimes
- Transplanted the center of the Avant-Garde from Paris to NY

WWII (1939-1945)

totalitarian regimes
- Adolfo Hittler
- Mussolini, Italy
- Franco, Spain

Origins of Abstract-Expressionism

- Emerged against powerful European Avant-Garde ( Dada, Bauhaus, Surrealism) exhibiting in the US
- Some feelings of inferiority for American painters
- Calamities that plagued humanity
- Cold War
Museum of Living art, 1926
Museum of Non-Objective paintin

Abstract Expressionism / Action painting

- Movement in painting emerged in mid-1940s-prominent 1950s
- Example of the American experience of freedom
- Art critic Clement Greenberg deemed it the quintessential " American-Type" painting
- Called the " NY school"
- Attention to surface qualities of

The Irascibles (Angry Institution)

Abstract Expressionist felt an initial lack of support by NYC museums
- Theodoro stamos, Jimmy Ernst, Barnett Newman, James Brooks, Mark Rothko, Richard Pousette, William Baziotes, Jackson Pollock, Clyfford Still, Robert Motherwell, Bradley Walker

Abstracting Painting and Sculpture in America

MOMA NY 1951

Abstract Expressionism - Action painting

- Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rythm n30, 1950
- Lee Krasner, The seasons, 1957
- Franz Kline, Painting n7 Guggenheim museum
- Joan Mitchel Ladybug ( Visualized personal memories of natural and urban landscapes)
- Robert Motherwell, At five in the Afternoon, C

Abstract Expressionism/ Color Field Painting

- Large, flat painted areas
- Contemplative mood

Barnett Newman

The present painter is concerned not with his own feelings or the mystery of his own personality but with the penetration into the world mystery. His imagination is therefore attempting to dig into metaphysical secrets. To that extent his art is concern

Louise Nevelson - Sky Cathedral
"When I fell in love with black, it contained all color. It wasn't a negation of color. It was an acceptance. Because black encompasses all colors. Black is the most aristocratic color of all. ... You can be quiet and it co

The flatness, recession, straight lines, curves linked to Analytic Cubism
- combining disparate elements to construct a work of art
- broke apart the physical forms and the meaning of art
- Blurred distinction between painting/ sculpture

Robert Rauschenberg

Bed, 1955
oil and pencil on pillow, quilt, and sheet on wood supports. MOMA
"paintings relates to both art and life...I try to act in the gap between the two

Jasper Johns

- Flag encaustic oil, and collage, three panels
- Painted Bronze (Beer cans)


Late 1950's America: mass media, growing disponible income

Pop Art

- Originated in Britain/primary development America early 1960 (acknowledge/critiques the powerful consumer cultural in America)
- Critiques of the mass marketing practices and consumer culture that emerged in the US after WWII
- Mixed "high" and "low" cu

Pop Art

- Ed Ruscha, Standard Station, Amarillo, Texas 1963
- Claes Oldenburg, Store 107 East Second Street, Installation view 1961
- Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, Cupid's span
- Claes Oldenburg, Lipstick


Incorporating a pre-exisitng image into a new creation
Pop Art - Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning girl


- Dematerialized art
- Rejected gesture and emotion invested in the handcrafted object
- order, repetition
- usually industrially designed, geometric sculpture
- rejected traditional materials of sculpture


- Donald Judd, untitled, Cooper, ten units
- Agnes Martin, Friendship, incised gold leaf and gesso on canvas
- Eva Hesse, Right After, fiberglass, 1969

Process Art

- Artist firmly against the glamour of the object
- Used the products of industry with no values such as raw wood, rubber, felt

Conceptual Art

- Replaced objects with ideas
- Work was considered finished as soon as the artist had conceived of an idea and had expressed it
- Not in material form - in language, documentation, and proposals

Conceptual Art

John Baldessari - cremation project

Performance Art

- Generally involve bodily experience and live action
- Shifts attention from the art object to the artist's action
- Suggests that art exists in real space and real time
- Many artists employed performance to address the emerging social concerns in 1960'

Performance Art

- Bruce Nauman ( American 1941), Self portrait as a fountain, chromogenic print
- Marina Abramovic, Rhythm 10, 1974, Performance: Knives, artist's body
- Joseph Beuys

Earthwork and Site Specific

- Artists abandoned studio and gallery world
- Created art whose relationship to a particular site was inseparable to its existence
- Often only seen by the public through documentation or materials stone

Earthwork and site specific

Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970
Nancy Holt, Stone Enclouse: Rock Rings, Brown Mountain Stone
Ana Mendieta - Earth/Bodywork
- From the Silueta series
- Three of Life Series

Body Art ( The body is the object of the art)

- Developed from performance art in the mind 1960-1970
- The body is the subject and object of the work
- Often had cultural associations of active and passive modes with masculine and feminine positions

Body Art

Vito Acconci, Trademarks, 1969

Feminist Art

- Late 1960s early 1970
- Sought to bring greater visibility of women within art history and art practice
- Emerged with the feminist movement
-The Dinner party ( Juddy Chicago)

Feminist Art

Cindy Sherman: Untitled film Still
- Photos taken by Sherman
- Despited in stereotypical female roles inspired by 1950s and 1960s. Hollywood, films


A critique of modernist concepts such as: faith in scientific progress, identity as fixed, absolute truth accessed through knowledge

Main objectives of Postmodernism

- Put all assumptions under scrutiny to reveal the values that underlie systems of thought
- Question the ideologies that are seen as natural
- Focus attention on the ways sexual and cultural difference are produced and reinforced in images


- Kara Walker, ( American 1969), Burning African Village Play set with Big house and Lynching, Painted laser-cut steel
- Coco Fusco, ( Cuban-American
0 and Guillermo Pena, The Year of the White Bear and Two undiscovered Amerindias visit the West
- Fred Wi

Installation Art

artworks created for a specific site and arranged to create a total environment

Installation Art

Cai Guo-Qiang (China 1957) Lives and works in NYC
Simulate a carb bom
Inopportune, nine cars and sequenced multichannel light tubes, Guggenheim Museum
Stage II, Nine life sized Tiger: paper mache, plaster, fiberglass, resin, painted hide


Zhang Hvan (China) Lives and works in Shanghai, China
Free tiger returns to mountains, ash on linen


Nikki S. Lee ( Korean 1970) Lives and works in Seoul
The Hispanic Project, chromogenic print
Skateboarder project
Hip-Hop project


Tomok Sawada ( Japan 1977)
Detail: ID400, one hundred silver gelatin prints. Brooklyn museum
-Transforms herself into various identities of Japanese women
- Interrogates constructed Japanese


Yayoi Kusama ( Japan 1929) Lives and works in Tokyo
- Infinity Mirrored Room - Filled with the Brilliance of Life, Mirror -panenled installation with LED lights and water, 2011
- Self-Obliteration by dots (1968) performance, documented

Post-Internet (new media) is defined as a result of the contemporary moment

- Inherently informed by ubiquitous authorship
- Development of attention as currency
- Collapse of physical space in networked culture
- Infinite reproducibility and mutability of digital materials
John Rafman, 9 eyes prject, 2008-ongoing