Introduction to Counseling Exam 2- PSY 360

individual psychology

Adler's view that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that perfection, not pleasure, is thus the key motivator in human life

Alfred Adler

-he was frail, fearful, and sickly as a child
-became a physician to overcome death
-triumph over his early inferiorities set stage for career
-was a member of Freuds circle but denied following him

Basic Philosophy of individual psychology

-growth theorist with optimistic view
-believed humans have innate tendency to strive for perfection and that is most important motivator
-humans could be bad or good
-without support of others, we would not survive
-theory is holistic
-individual's perce

Soft Determinism

an individual creates his life path, but that very creativity enables him to change that path and his ultimate goal at any given time

Human motivation for individual psychology

-strive for superiority and resist feelings of inferiority
-people are seen as being "pulled" by their goals, not driven by instincts
-search for significance/connection with others is the ultimate motivation

lifestyle for individual psychology

-plan for your life developed by age of 5-6
-child's way of adapting to circumstances around them
-only way to truly understand someone is through their goal of lifestyle

social interest for individual psychology

-how much one cares about his/her society
-problems develop through physical disability and faulty parenting or. socializing
-a sense of belonging or working towards common goal
-if not encouraged, it causes decreased levels of interest in future

inferiority feelings

-part of normal life
-feelings not complex
-Adler felt people are always moving from a minus to plus in our self-esteem- critical due to it pushing us to improve ourselves and human life

superiority complex

a condition that develops when a person overcompensates for normal inferiority feelings

inferiority complex

Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences

communal life (basic task-IP)


work (basic task- IP)

occupational development

love (basic task- IP)

-intimate devotion
-added: coping with self and existential task

five categories of basic mistakes (IP)

-false or impossible goals of security
-misperceptions of life/life's demands
-minimization or denial of one's worth
-faulty values

theory of person/development- IP

-child begins life as small/relatively helpless
-family influences of family constellations, birth order (one of first to highlight), gender (masculine protest), and personalities (ruling-dominant, getting-leaning, avoidant, and socially useful)

health for individual psychology

-well developed social interest
-contribute to society (help solve tasks of life)
-able to meet problems head on
-has courage to be imperfect

dysfunction for individual psychology

-has goal of personal superiority and lifestyle is consequently aimed at protecting self-esteem
-lacking social interest
-neuroticism- striving for superiority
-psychoses: "godlike" - lack interpersonal skills and occupational interests, afraid they will

organ inferiority (IP)

In Adler's version of psychoanalysis, the idea that people are motivated to succeed in adulthood in order to compensate for whatever they felt, in childhood, was their weakest aspect.

pampered (IP)

treated with excessive care; spoiled

neglected (IP)

never learned love

nature of therapy (IP)

-assessment is formal and obtain lifestyle through structured means
-interview like
-"the question" of what would be different if they didn't have this illness
-family constellation
-early recollections re reflection of current views
-dreams are future or

overview of therapeutic atmosphere (IP)

-guided by faith/hope/love
-egalitarian relationship were therapist must avoid any sense of superiority
-"face-and-face" cooperative learning endeavor

Role of client/counselor (IP)

-client is expert on himself or herself
-counselor is expert on helping client
-counselor is educator and encourager
-model courageous approach by being willing to make mistakes

goal of IP

-understand and change faulty lifestyles and selfish goals-giving client insight into lifestyles
-decreasing symptoms
-increasing functioning
-increasing client's sense of humor
-producing change

process of therapy IP

-establishing relationship- empathy
-collaborating understanding-lifestyle analysis and assessment
-generating insight- facilitates understanding of clients lifestyle and interpretation of how/why
-anchoring a reorientation- acceptance
-resistance: lack o

techniques IP

-eclectic: use any/all techniques
-natural/logical consequences: assume responsibility
-acting as if
-pushing the button- visualize pleasant scene
-catching oneself
-creating images
-pleasing someone
-paradoxical intention

evaluation of IP therapy

-many assumptions of this theory are difficult to test
-greatest contribution is to sensitivity to diversity and culture ,,,,,,,,,

qualities of IP therapy

-constructs are difficult to test
-too common sense
-some support

Birth Order Theory

-firstborn children feel inferior to younger children who receive attention; become overachievers
-middle children feel superior to dethroned older children, as well as younger children; tend to be very competitive
-younger children feel inferior because

person-centered therapy

a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens

Carl Rogers

-non-directive-client centered-person centered therapy
-raised in strict and religious environment
-theological training
-one of most influential psychologists of all time
-first to use term client and record counseling sessions
-significant contribution

basic philosophy of PCT

-human beings, given a supportive environment, have a tendency to be good
-human behavior reflects innate need to grow and develop
-destructive or anti-social is a product of experience in the environment
-notions clients as self-directing and accept full

human motivation of PCT

-only motivation is tendency to grow to full potential in constructive, positive ways
-strive to maximize the organism (whole person/other living entity)
-humans do not have inherent aggressive or destructive tendencies (aggression may be used as means to

experience PCT

-noun-refers to everything that is going on in the individual at any given moment (emotions are important)
-verb-the process of persons receiving what is going on around/within them

actualizing tendency PCT

the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all its capacities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the organism
-involves both biological/psychological growth

organismic valuing process PCT

-ongoing process of evaluating experiences measuring it event by event to determine if it contributes or detaches from one's growth

self PCT

-As humans grow/experience the world, a portion of this experience is labeled this
-positive self-concept: all experiences that the person recognizes as "me" and the values that are attached to them
-negative self-concept: inconsistent self-concept

self-actualizing tendency PCT

-the propensity of the self to grow/maximize
-need for positive regard and self-regard- learned through experiencing it from others important to them
-conditions of worth- to seek love from important others and initially externalized, then internalized

theory of person and development of PCT

-life is an active process- humans are always striving to grow in positive directions
-infants motivated by actualizing tendency- organismic valuing process is used to evaluate experience
-differentiation of self- conditions of worth are established

health PCT

-"good life" is a process not a destination
-congruent person: perception of self is consistent with what he experiences
-creative/take risks in life

dysfunction PCT

-incongruence (the roots)- inconsistent between self and experience
-subceived- dimly perceived
-neurotic- defensive and rigid
-disorganized- self structure is damaged

nature of therapy PCT

-do not use assessment
-many are adamantly anti diagnosis

overview of therapeutic atmosphere PCT

-encounter between client and counselor
-counselor is non-expert and client is in drivers seat
-emphasize freed,/autonomy of client

role of client/counselor PCT

-are equals
-counselors provide a climate for self-actualizing
-client is to be genuine

goal of PCT

-facilitate the client's journey toward full potential- congruence

process of PCT therapy

-nondirective interaction
-attitude of therapist
-congruence of genuineness of therapist

Congruence PCT

-genuineness, transference, or realness
-counselors freely flowing awareness of his experience in therapeutic moment

unconditional positive regard PCT

counselor approaches client with complete acceptance and caring

empathetic understanding PCT

-when one individual perceives the internal experiences of another as if he were that person
-process not a state

4th condition? PCT

-transcendental state: leads to impulsive behaviors that fit with clients experiences

stages of PCT

1) resistance to therapy - don't see any problems
2) problems are external
3) cautious approach to self experiences/feelings
4) express intense past experiences
5) free expression of own feelings
6) awareness and insight to incongruence (irreversible)

therapeutic techniques of PCT

-variants of PCT
> experientialists: focusing approach and emotion-focused therapy
>non-directive client centered group- emphasizes need to give client control over therapy directions
>relational view-contemporary strand that emphasizes joint constr

evaluation of PCT

-one of most influential
-been criticized for being overly positive and ignorant of darker side of human nature

existential therapy

a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and value

Irvin Yalom

-parents immigrated from Russia before he was born
-family owned a grocery store and lived above store where he mostly read
- went to Boston University school of medicine

philosophy of counseling with an attitude (ET)

-more philosophy that pragmatics: more attitude than specific orientation
-roots are in existential philosophy (study of being and phenomenology), which emphasizes all we can really know is our own experience
-rooted in individuals existence
-looking for

school of thought (et)

-continental (European)- analytic; emphasizes limitations/tragedies of human condition
-U.S.A. emphasizes human potential and encounter- closely related to Rogers, Maslow, and Bugental

basic philosophy (ET)

-human beings are free, responsible for their own lives, and have potential for self-actualization
-human capacity for creativity and love
-existence comes before essence
-we have no control of gender/race/etc., but can control our choice/responsibility t

human motivation (ET)

-search for meaning- each individual has ultimate, true calling
1)creating work or doing a deed
2) by experiencing something or encountering someone
3) by the attitude we tale toward unavoidable suffering
-unconscious is true nature of our own existence

Modes of being (ET)

-umwelt- being in physical world
-mitwelt: being in relation to others
-eigenwelt: inner psychological world
-uberwelt: being in the spiritual world
> at any given time we typically have one/two ways in which we are most concerned

anxiety (ET)

-everyone has
-arises from personal need to survive, to preserve our bing, and to assert our being
-to experience is normal/expected: fits events/makes sense
-most powerful is existential anxiety: awareness of our mortality

ultimate concerns (ET)

-Death: "death itches all the time"- avoid thinking about most of the time
-Freedom: own world, life, choices, actions
-meaning: each is unique/found only as result of difficult search/unavoidable suffering
-isolation: always and ultimately alone

defenses (ET)

-Result of anxiety as ultimate concerns are inescapable
-specialness- if we are special, death doesn't apply to use as it does to others
-ultimate rescuer: if we have a magical rescuer, he or she will save us from the possibility of nonexistence

theory of person and development of individual (ET)

-not interested in theories of personality because of their orientation toward the essential issues of human experience
-more interested in clients present experience than past
-some recognize the developmental sequence from attachment to separation or in

health (ET)

-authentic (courage/determination)
-willingness to face our own anxiety
-deal and adjust with anxieties in our lives
-genuine to oneself

dysfunction (ET)

-major source is awareness of death
-result of living an unexamined life
-defense of specialness links to paranoia and narcissism
-meaningfulness: vegetativeness, nihilism, and adventurousness
-noogenic neurosis: lack of life meaning

nature of therapy (ET)

-do not use any form of assessment

Therapeutic atmosphere (ET)

-focused on immediate subjective experience
-very active in challenging and encouraging clients, but not providing solutions

roles of client/counselor in ET

-counselor is a consultant/fellow traveler, being as authentic and genuine as possible
-client is active particpant in process

goals in ET

set people free

process of therapy (ET)

-establish clear contract
-early focus on building strong, trusting therapeutic relationship
-working phase assessing client's material in terms of four ways of being
-relationship, understanding, and flexibility
-existential encounter based in trust/ethn

Three stages of therapy (ET)

1) client anxious- build solid relationship
2) client willingness- deeper exploration oof self experiencing/responsibility
3) creativity- client realizes stronger sense of meaning and purpose, engages with world, aware of givens in life

techniques of ET

-some believe none
-any interventions that help gain awareness
> socratic dialogue- self examination of exploring our own experiences and values
> attention to nonverbal behavior
> self-disclosure
> paradoxical intentions
> dereflection: attention out to

evaluation of ET

- not cohesive
-often difficult to read
-suitable for those marginalized, women, and those from different cultures
-not very testable
-existential theorists aren't too enthusiastic about traditional empirical research (therapy is philosophy for living)

Gestalt therapy

therapy that aims to integrate different and sometimes opposing aspects of personality into a unified sense of self

Fritz Perls

-paradigm shifts throughout evolution of theory
-background in theater
-medical degree after serving WWI
-controversial figure
-born into a progressive Jewish family in Berlin
-major influence was gestalt psychology
-rebellious throughout adolescence

Basic Philosophy (GT)

-Humans are growth oriented (desire to improve)
-holism- humans cantle separated from their environment of divided into parts (such as body/mind)
-humanistic-existential approach emphasizing individual choice and that humans are another form of biological

human motivation (GT)

-drive to satisfy needs (psychological/biological/connect to other humans)
-striving to regulate the organism so it can grow
-goal of processionals of self-regulation is harmony with the environment, maturity, or actualization

self-regulation (GT)

involves process of determining what is good/bad for organism
-lead toward acceptance of good and rejection of bad

contact (GT)

-central feature of life
-defined as meeting the environment, which can be external to the person or aspects of the self
-healthily results in assimilation of novel elements and involves growth- involves aggression/destruction., which are natural processe

needs (GT)

-gestalt means whole with a gestalt having a figure, a feature that stands out, and a ground, which is the rest of experience
-incomplete Gestalt that emerges into organism's awareness

cycle of experiences/awareness

sensation- awareness- mobilizing-full contact-withdrawal- assimilation

polarities (GT)

-opposites must exist
-called ego/infraego polarity top dog and underdog
-sometimes we don't want to accept one end, so we rigidify them into dichotomies and reject one end

contact disturbances (GT)

-when cycle of awareness is disrupted (boundary problems/defenses)
-resistance to awareness

introjection (GT)

swallowing whole of experience

projection (GT)

unwanted part of self is expelled to environment

confluence (GT)

complete loss of self, enmeshed with environment

retroflection (GT)

unacceptable impulse turned inward

health (GT)

-live in harmony with environment
-self regulation guides individual
-creative adjustment- balance between self and environment
-living authentic experiences

dysfunction (GT)

-unfinished business
-earlier creative adjustment that is nonfunctional;
-U.S. or other western cultures encourages people to artificially separate mind and body
-impasse- point an individual is stuck
-emotions are signals to unmet needs

role of client/counselor (GT)

-frustrate clients avoidance
-confrontation- "phony"
-client is engaging in the process of self discovery

goal of GT


assessment (GT)

-no formal assessment
-therapist is assessment tool
-traditional diagnosis is rejected
-"what do you experience right now?

overview of therapy (GT)

-immediacy- "I and Thou, Here and Now"
-always in the present
-"lose your mind and come to your senses"
-"safe emergency

process of therapy (GT)

-three elements- relationship, awareness, experiments
-rules and games- staying in the now, aware and authentic, using i not it, and asking no questions but turning them into statements
-emphasis on physical/body sensations
-"paradoxical theory of change

therapeutic techniques

-technically eclectic- to foster awareness
> experiments
>therapist self-disclosure
>dialogues- client creates a conversation
> top dog-underdog/two chair and empty chair
> playing the projection
>reveals: act the reverse
> dreamwork: royal

emotion-focused therapy

-some positive research results on process and outcomes
-EFT may be superior too client centered fr reduction of symptoms for depression
-research provides a support for effects of chair dialogue on client outcome

contemporary gestalt therapists

-focus more on role of interdependence in human life
-reemphasis on field theory
-attention to/exploration of the experiences field of the client, or the ways she organizes her experience