module 9 vocab

Acantholysis

Dissolution of the intercellular bridges of the prickle cell layer of the epithelium

Allergy

a hypersensitive state acquired through exposure to a particular allergen; re-exposure to the same allergen elicits an exaggerated reaction

Anaphylaxis

a type of hypersensitivity or allergenic reaction in which the exaggerated immunologic reaction results from the release of vasoactive substances such as histamine; the reaction occurs on re-exposure to a foreign protein or other substance after sensitiza

Antibody

a specific protein produced by plasma cells in respond to exposure to a specific antigen, which it can neutralize

Antigen

a foreign substance that induces an immune response and production of antibodies

Autoimmune disease

a disease characterized by tissue injury caused by a humoral or cell-mediated immune response against constituents of the body's own tissues.

Cell mediated immunity

immunity in which the predominant role is played by T lymphocytes

Granuloma

a tumor-like mass of inflammatory tissue consisting of a central collection of macrophages, often with multinucleated giant cells, surrounded by lymphocytes.

Granulomatous disease

a disease characterized by the formation of granulomas

Humoral immunity

immunity in which antibodies play the predominant role

Immune complex

a combination of antibody and antigen

Immunodeficiency

1. a deficiency of the immune response resulting from hypoactivity or decreased numbers of lymphoid cells

Immunoglobulin

large glycoproteins secreted by plasma cells; function as antibodies

Macrophage

a large mononuclear phagocyte derived from monocytes; macrophages become mobile when stimulated by inflammation and interact with lymphocytes in an immune response.

Natural killer cells (NK cells)

a lymphocyte that circulates in the blood and primarily protects against viral infections.

Nikolsky's sign

when superficial epithelium separates from the basal layer easily on exertion of firm, sliding manual pressure. Usu. results in bleeding due to the "sloughing off" of tissue. Seen in some bullous diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigus

Parenteral

administered by injection

Rheumatoid factor

a protein, immunoglobulin M (IgM), found in serum and detectable on lab tests; it is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other AI diseases

Thymus

a lymphoid organ situated in the chest behind the sternum; it reaches maximal development at @ puberty and then undergoes gradual involution

Sicca syndrome

when both xeropthalmia and xerostomia are concurrent.

Opportunistic infection

an infection by a microorganism that normally does not cause disease; however, due to an impaired immune system infection occurs

Xeropthalmia

dry eyes causes by diminished or absent tear production

Xerostomia

dry mouth causes by diminished or absent salivary flow