BUS215 Final Exam


the study of how a culture uses and perceives time. Ex: Time is money.

Theory X

Traditionalist view. Management exercises control, motivates individuals through external incentives. Motivation comes from: Paycheck only or negative reinforcement.

Theory Y

Contemporary view - Management balances control and individual freedom, treats the individual as a mature person. Motivation comes from: responsibility, work as part of life.

Aggressive Behavior

Verbally attacking, controlling, provoking, intimidating."are you crazy, that idea is horrible!?


people feel part of the team and realize that they can achieve work if they accept other viewpoints

Clan Culture

internal focus, flexible. Friendly workplace where leaders act like father figures. Southwest Airlines


Situation in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. 2+2=5. Ex: how long would it take 1 person to paint a room? 2 people? 4 people?

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Distributes decision-making power to people closest to the problem. Goal is employee empowerment.

In-group Collectivism

The degree to which people express pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in their groups.

Future Orientation

The extent to which people engage in planning, investing and delayed gratification. Ex: Do your homework today so you can go to the beach this weekend.

Asynchronous Messages

a message that is not read, heard, or seen at the same time it is sent. Ex: sent message to go to lunch at noon but don't see it until 4pm.

Low-context Culture

Messages are explicit, objective & efficient, words taken literally, and situation provides little meaning .

You" Attitude Sentence

Congratulations on your promotion to sales manager!

Active Voice Use

When the person doing the action is emphasized. Use active-voice verbs:Clear expressions, emphasize who did the action (subject), and emphasize good news.


A desktop publishing term used to describe the breaking down of information into easily understood pieces.

Subjective Mood

Speak of a wish, necessity, doubt, or condition contrary to fact. Used to convey a negative idea in positive language. Include a pleasant statement if necessary.

Writing a first draft

Draft prior to revision or proofreading.

Sales Promotion

Statements made about related merchandise or service. Ex: Be sure to pick up some Lays Potato chips to go along with your summer picnic.


Discussion of goods or services already bought. Ex: Pop-Cola is the number one rated brand of soft drinks.

Procedural Messages

Communicate standard operating procedures and other instructions. Most frequent type of communication in businesses.

Subject Lines

If it is an email or memo, make sure the subject is stated so that the receiver will open the message.

Structure of bad news message

3.Bad-news statement
4."Silver lining" idea
5.Goodwill Closing

1st sentence of informational email

States the news. This can be a 1-sentence paragraph.

Guidelines for 2nd paragraph of bad-news email

Reasons, bad news, and silver lining. Provide a smooth transition from the opening paragraph to the explanation, include a concise discussion of reasons that are logical to the receiver, show receiver benefit and/or consideration, and avoid using "company

Appropriate Silverlining

Alternative to the action requested. It follows the negative news. Ends the 2nd paragraph. Preserving future relationships, eliminates the need to state the refusal directly, follows a refusal stated in a tactful, sensitive manner, and need to ensure that

Bad-news Sandwich

Position the bad-news statement strategically. Sandwich it between the reasons & the silver lining. Place in the bad news after the reasons, not as a separate paragraph.

Analytical Report

Presents suggested solutions to problems Ex: How to decrease turnover.


Level of consistency or stability over time or over independent samples Ex: You will score the same if you take it today and again next week.

Line Chart

Depict changes in quantitative data over time and illustrate trends.

How to start a persuasive messages

Know the product service or idea, know the receiver, and identify the desired action.

Desire section of persuasive messages

(Reasons or Evidence) provide convincing evidence, present and interpret factual evidence (data), be objective (will they believe it), include testimonials, guarantees, and enclosures for sales messages, and include research, analysis, results (good or ba

Delivery Style of persuasive messages

AIDA (Attention, interest, desire, and action)


Degree to which the data measures what the researcher intends to measure. Ex: A typing test accurately measures how fast you can type.

Where is central selling feature

Comes at the end of the first paragraph (Attention). It should be introduced early and woven throughout the presentation and restated at the end.

Identify the "problem

Particular problem to be solved by research. Goals that the researcher hopes to meet through the study. Need to know why it's wanted, not just what is wanted

Secondary Research

Provides information that has already been reported by others.

How to create good surveys

Develop an effective survey instrument, test the instrument by asking others to complete and critique the questionnaire, avoiding data-gathering errorsKey, and make sure that the questions are as quantitative (measurable) as possible.

Common Language

Reduces difficult figures to the common denominators of language and ideas. Involves the use of indicators other than actual count or quantity Examples: Fractions, ratios, and percentages


Includes all materials used in research that are not appropriate to be included in the report itself. Includes references, appendix & index. At the end of the report.

Justification Report

A report that outlines comparative information clearly to the reader. Used for comparing items of purchase.


limitations (time & money)

Application Message (Cover Letter)

a message is placed on top of the r�sum� so it can be read first by the employer. Complements the resume by speaking directly to the specific job posting.

Oral Briefing

Informal presentations that are prepared and presented with little time for planning and developing.

How to create a slide show

Choose an effective color scheme, and an appealing, easy to read font.

Structured Interview

Interviewer follows a predetermined agenda that contains a checklist of items that are asked to each participant in the exact same way. No further questions or clarifications are allowed.

Extemporaneous Speech

Speaker plans, prepares, and rehearses but does not write everything down.

Who do you write a letter to?

Employers and supervisors

How is work experience listed?

Starting with the most recent

What is the best closing for cover letters?

Asking for an interview, tie request to reader benefits, and sound appreciative, list phone and email.

STAR Technique

Situation, task, action, and result. Used to answer interview questions.