# Science waves

Wave

A disturbance that transers energy from place to place

Energy

The ability to do work or cause change

Medium

The material through which wave travels

Mechanical wave

A wave that requires a medium through which to travel

Vibration

A repeated back-and-forth or up-and-down motion

Transverse wave

A wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular in which does the wave travel

Crest

The highest part of transverse wave

Trough

The lowest part of a transverse wave

Longitudinal wave

A wave that moves a medium in a direction parallel to the wave

Compression

The part of a longitude wave where the particles of the medium

Rarefaction

The part of a longitude wave where the particles of the medium are far apart

Amplitude

The maximum distance the particles that are not in a regular pattern

Wavelength

The distance between two corresponding parts of a wave

Frequency

The number of complete waves that pass a given point

Hertz

Unit of measurement for frequency

Reflection

The bouncing back of an object or wave when it hits a surface through which it cannot pass

Law of reflection

The rule that the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence

Refraction

The bending of waves as they enter a new medium at an angle

Diffraction

The bending of waves as they move around a barrier or pass through an opening

Interference

The interaction between waves that meet

Constructive interference

The interference that occurs when waves combine to make a wave with a larger amplitude

Destructive interference

The interference that occurs when two waves combine that make a wave with a smaller amplitude

Standing wave

A wave that appears to stand in one place, even though it is two waves interfering as they pass though each other

Node

A point of zero amplitude on a standing wave

Antinode

A point t of maximum amplitude on a standing wave

Resonance

The increase in the amplitude of a vibration that occurs when external vibrations match an objects natural frequency

Seismic wave

A wave produced by an earthquake

P wave

A longitudinal seismic wave

S wave

A transverse seismic wave

Surface wave

A combination of longitudinal wave and transverse wave that travels along the surface of a medium

Tsunami

A huge surface wave on the ocean caused by an underwater earthquake

Seismograph

An instrument used to detect a measure earthquake waves