cj chapter 3 part 2

rational choice theory

human behavior is a matter of choice, free will, people weigh benefits and consequences of future actions, decisions to violate the law comes after a cost, benefit, analysis of criminal behavior

trait theory

holds that youths engage in delinquent or criminal behavior due to aberrant physical or psychological traits that govern behavioral choices; delinquent actions are impulsive or instinctual rather than rational choices

free will

view that people are in charge of their own destinies and are free to make personal behavior choices unencumbered by environmental factors

classical criminology

holds that decisions to violate the law are weighted against possible punishments, and to deter crime the pain of punishment must outweigh the benefit of illegal gain. this idea led to graduated punishments based on seriousness of the crime ( let the puni

harsher punishments including placing juveniles in adult courts is based off what idea/theory?

the rational delinquent

what shapes delinquent choices?

parental controls, personal problems, financial needs,vengeance, and violence

what is the routine activities theory

view that crime is a normal function of the routine activities of modern living;offenses can be expected if there is a motivated offender and a suitable Target that is not protected by capable guardians

predatory crime

violent crimes against people and crimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly from its holder

general deterrence

crime Control policies that depend on the fear of criminal penalties, such as long prison sentences for violent crimes;the aim is to convince law of violators that the pain outweighs the benefit of criminal activity

focused deterrence

a policy that relies on pulling every deterrent lover available to reduce crime in the targeted population. basically overwhelming a situation with law and order in attempt to deter the targeted problem

specific deterrents

sending convicted offenders to secure incarceration facilities so that punishment is severe enough to convince offenders not to repeat their criminal activity

about how many teenagers are serving time in adult prisons?


situational crime prevention

crime prevention method that relies on reducing the opportunity to commit criminal Acts by a-making them more difficult to perform b-reducing their reward c-increasing their risks also increase shame and remove excuses

Target hardening techniques

crime prevention techniques that make it more difficult for a would-be delinquent to carry out the illegal act. for example by installing a security device in a home

diffusion of benefits

an effect that occurs when efforts to prevent one type of delinquent act may actually prevent another


the idea that a program that helps lower crime rates in specific locations or neighborhoods maybe redirecting offenders to alternative targets

who is the father of criminology?

Cesare Lombroso

criminal atavism

The idea that delinquents manifest physical anomalies that make them biologically and physiologically similar to our primitive ancestors, savage throwbacks to an earlier stage of human evolution.

biosocial theory

a theory of delinquency causation that integrates biologically determinates and environmental stimuli

biosocial theorists

argue that no two people are alike and therefore each will react to environmental stimuli in a different way. they assume that a combination of personal traits and the environment produces individual behavior patterns, for example someone with an abnormal

vulnerability model

assumes there is a direct link between traits and crime; some people all vulnerable to crime after developing physical or mental traits at birth or soon after that affect their social functioning and put them in danger of poor behavior choices from birth

differential susceptibility model

The view that some people are predisposed to environmental influences; given their makeup are at risk when they encounter unfavorable social environments, but can also benefit more than others from a favorable and supportive environment

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

he disorder in which a child shows a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity


pertaining to the brain and nervous system structure

minimal brain dysfunction (MBD)

damage to the brain itself that causes antisocial behavior injurious to the individuals lifestyle and social adjustment

what percent of known offenders report some type of traumatic brain injury and suffer from a number of antisocial traits throughout their life course?


neurological dysfunction is related to what theory?


reduction in executive functioning (EF)

a condition that refers to impairment of the cognitive processes that facilitate the planning and regulation of goal-oriented behavior

what disorder is considered a precursor of long-term chronic offending?

conduct disorder

conduct disorder CD

a disorder of childhood and adolescence that involves chronic behavior problems, such as defiant, impulsive, or antisocial behavior and substance abuse

what is ASD

antisocial substance disorder

learning disability

neurological dysfunction that prevents an individual from learning to his or her potential

arousal theorists

delinquency experts who believe that aggression is a function of the level of an individual's need for stimulation or arousal from the environment

contagion effect

the idea that delinquency spreads when kids copy the behavior of peers and siblings

evolutionary theory

explaining the existence of aggression and violent behavior as positive adaptive behaviors in human evolution; these traits allow their bears to reproduce disproportionately which has an effect on the human gene pool

what are the biosocial theories?

biochemical, neurological, genetic and evolutionary

psychodynamic theory

branch of psychology pioneered by Sigmund Freud, that holds that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early and childhood

identity crisis

psychological state, identified by Erickson in which youth face inner turmoil and uncertainty about life roles

latent delinquents

you the who's troubled family Life leads them to seek immediate gratification without consideration of right and wrong or the feelings of others

according to Freud the human personality contains what three major components?

the id, ego and superego

attachment theory

a form of psychodynamic tradition that holds that the ability to form attachments or emotional bonds to another person has important lasting psychological implications that follow adolescents across the lifespan


hey serious mental disorder characterized by thinking and emotions that indicate that the person has lost contact with reality

mood disorder

a condition in which the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances


a deficit and emotional cognition that prevents people from being aware of their feelings or being able to understand or talk about their thoughts and emotions; sufferers seem robotic and emotionally dead

one study of incarcerated youth found that what percent of males had psychiatric disorders of some kind?


one study of incarcerated youth found that what percent of females had a psychiatric disorder of some kind?


disruptive behavior disorder (DBD)

a consistent pattern of behaviors that continually breaks normal social rules and is extremely oppositional and defiant of authority


branch of psychology concerned with the study of observable behavior rather than unconscious processes; focuses on particular stimuli and responses to them

social learning theory (psychological)

The view that behavior is modeled through observation, either directly through intimate contact with others or indirectly through media;interactions that are rewarded are copied, whereas those that are punished are avoided

cognitive theory

the branch of psychology that studies the perception of reality and the mental processes required to understand the world we live in

who applied the concept of developmental stages to issues and criminology?

Lawrence kohlberg


the reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions, that distinguish one person from another

youths who are both neurotic and what often lack insight, are highly impulsive, and more likely that other delinquents to become chronic offenders?



a person who behaves impulsively and doesn't have the ability to examine motives and behavior


a personality trait marked by unfounded anxiety, tension and emotional instability

antisocial personality disorder

a person lacking and warmth and affection, exhibiting inappropriate behavior responses, and unable to learn from experience

nature theory

holds that low intelligence is genetically determined and inherited, and could lead to delinquency

nurture theory

holds that intelligence is partly biological but mostly sociological; negative environmental factors encourage delinquent behavior and depress intelligence scores for many youths

who developed the routine activities theory?

Lawrence Cohen and Marcus felson