HTHS 1111 CH 12 objectives 11-22

Relate landmarks on the skull to specific brain structures. obj 11

see following slides for info from obj 11

The cerebral cortex has five lobes, what are they? obj 11

frontal (in front)
parietal ("parents oversee")
temporal (under the temple)
occipital (in the back; the verebellum, though not a lobe of the cerebrum also lies here)
NOTE: these lobes are named after the bones of the skull that lie next to the brain lobes

The cranial vault of the skull forms from the fusion of __________ different bones. obj 11


Name the lobes of the cerebral cortex. Explain the functions associated with each. obj 12

See next slides associated with obj 12

There are 4 external loves of the brain; what are they? obj 12


Some authors would call the __________ a fifth lobe. This is the part of the brain that is ________ inside and only visible when we cut the _________ surface of the brain away. Scientists believe the _______ is the source of social _______ like guilt or p


Fissures or grooves in the surface of the cortex are called what?
obj 12

sulcus (furrow, groove, ditch, trench)

Deep grooves are called what? obj 12


Bumps on the surface are called what? obj 12

gyri (ring, circle)

__________ and __________ form the borders between the lobes. obj 12


The frontal lobe and parietal lobe are separated by the _____________. The same seems to say its east to locate, but its harder than you would think. obj 12

central sulcus

One either side of the central sulcus are two parallel, almost identical looking ________. They are called the _____________ (rostrally, part of the frontal lobe) and the ______________ (caudally, part of the parietal lobe). As we'll see, the ____________

precentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus
precentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus

The frontal and parietal lobes are separated from the temporal lobe by the ___________, aka the lateral sulcus or sylvian fissure. obj 12

lateral fissure

The parietal lobe and occipital lobe are separated by the _______________. The good news is its reasonable name for a __________ separating the parietal and occipital lobes. The bad new is, its only visible on the __________ surface. We have to draw imagi

parieto-occipital sulcus

The _________________ separates the brain into two hemispheres. obj 12

medial longitudinal fissure

The ____________ separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. obj 12

transverse fissure

Most of cerebral cortex has ______ layers of cells, but the way the cells are ________ and the shape of the cells are different in different places. The first pattern of cell shapes and packing he (Korbinian Brodmann) named area 1; the second, area 2; and


PARIETAL LOBE: What do we need to know about; Area 3, 1 and 2 (postcentral gyrus)? obj 12

primary somatosensory cortex, receiving info about the face and body surface, no one knows why we list them in this order). Taste is also here and nearby in area 43

FRONTAL LOBE: What do we need to know about; Area 4,: (precentral gyrus)? obj 12

primary motor cortex, sending axons to the alpha motor neurons of spinal cord (executing movement).

FRONTAL LOBE: What do we need to know about; Area 44 and 45 (Broca's area)? obj 12

in most people, broca's area on the left side is responsible for the production of speech (movements of the throat and tongue)

OCCIPITAL LOBE: What do we need to know about: areas 17,18 and 19: Visual cortex (sensory, sight).

Area 17 is also called primary visual cortex or striate cortex.

Identify the three meninges. For each meninx, be able to describe its anatomical relationship to the skull, to the brain, and to the other meninges.

Look for next slides for obj 13

The brain is covered by a 3 layered bag. These layers are collectively called what? obj 13


From the skull to the surface of the brain, the meninges comprise of? obj 13

DURA MATER (touch mother): a leathery covering
ARACHNOID MATER (spiderweb mother): which resembles a wet spider web and is normally filled with CSF. :
PIA MATER (delicate mother): like a coating of paint on the surface of the brain, which cannot be separa

In an epideral, anesthesia is applied on top of ___________? obj 13

dura mater

Patients who suffer bleeding into the brain may have blood collecting in the ____________ (between the skull and dura); tearing apart the _____________ (between the dura and arachnoid); or filling the ________________ (between the arachnoid and the pial s

epidural space
subdural region
subarachnoid space

Describe CSF. Identify locations where it is made; where it circulates; and where it is resorbed into the bloodstream. obj 14

See following slides referring to obj 14

The brain has a series of hollow spaces, what are they called? obj 14


Together, the ventricles and subarachnoid space are filled with _______. obj 14

CSF (a filtrate of blood plasma that cushions and supports the brain, as well as supplying a favorable ionic environment for neurons (that is, isotonic and mostly NaCl). Scientist estimat that the brain, at an average 1400 g, weights only 50 g when buoyed

The ventricles include..... obj 14

LATERAL VENTRICLES: shaped like the letter C with a tail. This pair of ventricles is located benath the white matter of cerebral cortex. There is no "first" or "second" ventricle.
A THIRD VENTRICLE: which is a slit like space between the two eggs of the t

The ventricles are connected to each other by ____________. The lateral ventricles and third ventricle connect via the _________________. The third and fourth ventricles are joined by the ______________. The fourth ventricle communicates with the ________

interventricular foramina
cerebral aqueduct
subarachnoid space

CSF is made in the _______________; a specialized tissue that is found mainly in the lateral ____________ and fourth ventricle. There, the blood is filtered by ____________ cells, a type of glial cell. obj 14

choroid plexus

CSF is almost identical to __________; it is slightly lower in ___________ and amino acids than plasma and much lower in protein. obj 14


CSF circulates through the ventricular system... NOTE. obj 14

CSF must be able to circulate freely between teh chambers (ventricles) and pipes (aqueducts and foramina). If it does not or if it is made too fast or absorbed too slowly; "hydrocephalus" results. "lumbar puncture" sample of CSF from a "pool" in the lumba

CSF circulates and is turned over about ________ times a day. Because of this circulation a lumbar puncture may detect bleeding that originated (for example) in the subarachnoid space around frontal cortex. obj 14


The resorption of CSF is thought to occur in the _____________, a collection of structures along the midline of the superior aspect of the _______. obj 14

arachnoid villi

The skull of an infant is capable of expansion. An adult's skull is bony and unyielding. if the ___________ or ___________ become occluded in an adult, a life-threatening condition known as ______________ ("water-brain") occurs. This can also result from


CSF can be sampled from the ______________, the ____________ which contains the free floating nerve roots of the cauda equina at the caudal end of the spinal cord. obj 14

lumbar cistern
subarachnoid space

Define the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Identify the components of the BBB. obj 15

See next few slides for obj 15

The brain tightly regulates which substances are allowed into the ____. The BBB is a collaboration between the lining of _________ and the end feet of _________. It keeps most substances in the bloodstream from entering the brain. There are _______ to bri


One exception is the area __________; aka "vomiting center". This small area of the medulla oblongata has no ____, which give it access to any toxins or irritants which might be circulating in the blood. If it detects them, then it triggers emesis (vomiti

vagus nerve.

The BBB is nice to have, but one problem is that it can keep out ________ (particularly antibiotics) that we might want to use to help a patient. It is important to design drugs to be used in the brain so that they can circumvent this barrier. obj 15


Describe the BBB. obj 15

keeps invaders and unwaned chamicals out, the brain has a special collaboration between the endothelial cells lining the capillaries and the end-feet of astrocytes.
Drugs must pass the BBB to affect the brain
Many antibiotics have difficulty crossing the

Explain the role of the hypothalamus in regulating the body's homestatic balance. Name specific homeostatic loops for which the hypothalamus is the control center. obj 16

See following slides for obj 16

Which homeostatic mechanisms for the body are controlled by the hypothalamus? obj 16

Body temperature
sexual function
emotional state
circadian rhythms (activity levels related to time and day

The hypothalamus is located where? obj 16

underneath the thalamus
NOTE: it is intrimately associated with the "pituitary gland

Within the hypothalamus are dozens of small nuclei, clusters of brain cells that are responsible for a particular function. The hypothalamus is the main control center for body _________. obj 16


Because the hypothalamus is positioned next to the optic nerve, it also is able to receive info about light and dark from the eyes. It uses this to regulate __________ in cooperation with the _______________. obj 16

sleep/wake cycles
reticular formation

Identify the location of the reticular activating system and describe its role. obj 17

see following slides for info on obj 17

A loosely organized group of cells forms the central core of the brain-stem, extending through the ________, _________ and ________. This core group of ________ appears net like in some __________ methods, so it has the name of reticular formation ("littl


The __________________ is the alarm clock of the brain. obj 17

reticular formation
NOTE: if the reticular formation is damaged, as in coma, patients cannot be aroused and seem to always be in a sleep like state.

The _____________ takes in information from many sensory systems, and then after processing, sends info over a wide area of cerebral cortex to keep all areas of the brain active. obj 17

reticular formation

What part of the brain controls conscious thought? obj 17

NOTE: sensory info only consciously perceived when it is relayed to cortex. Conscious control of motor function only if it originates in cortex.

Define homunculus. Describe or label teh general orientation of both sensor and motor homunculi. obj 18

See following slides for obj 18

The precentral gyrus is the same as ________________ and the postcentral gyrus is the same as _______________. obj 18

primary motor cortex
primary somatosensory cortex

There is a regular map of the body surface on each of these gyri. For the ____________________, as we travel from lateral to medial, we encounter the gut tube, mouth, face, fingers, hand, arm back of head, neck, trunk, hip, leg, foot, toes and genitals. o

somatosensory cortex

For the _________________, we encounter mouth, face, neck, finger, hand, arm, trunk, hip, leg and toes. obj 18

motor cortex

what are the maps called that show the amount of rain "real estate" devoted to each region of the body surface? obj 18

Homunculus ("little man")

T/F there is a lot of sensory info coming from the lips and hands? obj 18


T/F There is a lot of motor info going out to the face and hands.
obj 18

This is because we have fine control over these areas

State which brain functions are primarily or exclusively resident in one hemisphere. Summarize the role of the corpus collosum in connecting the two hemispheres. obj 19

see following slides for obj 19

Describe left hemisphere functions. obj 19

receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on right side of body.
Numerical and scientific skills.
Ability to use and understand sign language.
Spoken and written language.

Describe right hemisphere functions. obj 19

Receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on left side of body.
Musical and artistic awareness.
Space and pattern perceptions.
Recognizes of faces and emotional content of facial expressions.
Generates emotional content of language

Almost all brain functions are represented ___________ in both hemispheres. obj 19


The two halves of the brain are connected through a major bundle of axons. What is this called? obj 19

corpus collosum

The two halves are connected ___________, so that the face area of the left postcentral gyrus (somatosensory cortex), for examples, is connected via the corpus callosum to the face area of the right postcentral gyrus. Its apparent that half the face needs


Functions that are localized to one hemisphere more than the other are the exception rather than the rule. Two of the functions that are localized to a single hemisphere are apparent in patients that have __________. obj 19


In almost all right handed people and in a slight majority of left handed people, the production of speech is localized to the _____ hemisphere. In the remaining 5% or so, speech is in the same area of the ______ hemisphere. For most people, a stroke on t


A stroke in parts of the right ________ lobe produces a weird phenomenon called ____________. Patients are only aware of the right half of the world. including the right half of their own body. They do not recognize their left side as belonging to them. o

left-sided neglect

Recognize the hippocampus, mammillary bodies, anterior nucleus of the thalamus, cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus as part of the limbic system. obj 20

see following slides for obj 20

The limbic system is aka the _________; plays a key role in __________ behavior. It forms a border or fringe that encircles the ___________ and __________. obj 20

libic lobe

In the original circuit proposed by Papez, the five structures of the limbic lobe were. obj 20

mammillary bodies
anterior nucleus of the thalamus
cingulate gyrus
parahippocampal gyrus
NOTE: these were connected in a circular pathway.

The fornix connects the hippocampus to the ___________ bodies. The mammillothalamic tract connects the mammillary bodies to the anterior nucleus of the ___________. obj 20


All of the structures listed are important in ____________ behaviors. The __________ bulb which processes smell info is an important part of emotion. obj 20


The _____________ is involved in learning and memory. obj 20


This circuit also shows us how important _________ is when we want to learn something. In the absence of __________, it is very difficult to activate this circuit and the ability to learn is impaired. obj 20


Give examples of each type of memory. Identify the parts of the brain involved in each. Define consolidation and explain the critical role of the hippocampus in consolidation of declarative memory.
obj 21

see following slides for obj 21

Memory is made up of at least ________ different systems. obj 21


The storage of memories is in the area of ________ that processes that sensation. obj 21

FOR EXAMPLE: visual memories are stored in the visual cortex.

There are a group of structures that do the "labeling" and "filing" of memories. Memories are moved from short term, "scratchpad" memory to a more permanent form. This process is called _____________. obj 21


Declarative memory (explicit memory) is remembering facts, dates and events. These are consolidated in the ____________ and __________. obj 21


Other forms of memory are called ____________ and _______________. obj 21

impiicit memory

Skills and habits are consolidated then stored in the __________ and _________ (these parts of the basal nuclei are together called the striatum); motor cortex and cerebellum. obj 21


Multiple studies have shown that mental practice in your head can help in actual performance. This phenomenon is called ___________ and takes place in the cortex, especially the ____________. obj 21

premotor cortex (brodmann 6)

Emotional responses and "muscle memory" are forms of ____________. The fear you feel as your drive down a street where you had a traffic accident the year before is stored n the __________. obj 21

classical conditioning

Muscle memory is the leraning of an activity through practice until it is done without thought and is stored in the ____________. obj 21


___________are faster and more effective with learning and the improvement of these reflex pathways is a form of learning as well. obj 21


List the 12 cranial nerves. Be able to correctly associate their names and numbers. State a function for each and whether it is sensory, motor or mixed. obj 22

see following slides for obj 22

The spinal cord has spinal nerves. These are segmental; but the simplest explanation is that they cover a specific region of skin and or muscle and are always _________(sensory + motor). obj 22


Inside the skull there is a different system. The presence of head only muscle groups, head only senations (vision, hearing) and head only autonomic functions (salivation) along with all the "regular stuff" means that the head needs _____________. obj 22

cranial nerves
NOTE: there are 12

Classically there are 12 cranial nerves, what are they? obj 22

I - Olfactory
II - Optic
III - Oculomotor
IV - Trochlear
V - Trigeminal
VI - Abducens
VII - Facial
VIII - Vestibulococlear
IX - Glossopharyngeal
X - Vagus
XI - Accessory (spinal accessory)
XII - Hypoglossal
NOTE: need to come up with a mneunomic

Cranial nerves I (olfactory) and II (optic) are really just, __________. Both carry __________ info. obj 22

CNS tracts
NOTE: the olfactory nerve caarries olfactory info from the olfactory epithelium inside the nasal sinuses to the brain.
The optic nerve carries optic info from the retina lining the inside of the eye to the brain.

Cranial nerves III, IV and VI innervate the ________________. These muscles move the eye around in the orbit, so each nerve is purely ___________. obj 22

extraocular muscles

there are 6 ocular muscles, what are they? obj 22

Four of them have the name rectus (straight) and pull the eye straight lateral or medial, up or down, etc.
-lateral rectus
-medial rectus
-superior rectus
-inferior rectus
Two of them have the name "oblique" (slanting) and twist the eye;
-superior oblique

The superior oblique passes through a bony loop in the superior part of the orbit. This bony loop is called the _____________ (pulley). obj 22


What are the 3 cranial nerves that innervate the extraocular muscles. obj 22

Cranial nerves III, IV and VI.
III is OCULOMOTOR NERVE: innervates four of the 6 muscles (medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles). It also innervates the iris muscles which control the size of the pupil.

Cranial nerves V and VII innervate the __________. Both are _________ nerves but V is primarily ___________ for the face while VII is primarily ___________ for the muscles of facial expression. obj 22


Cranial nerves V and VII are which nerves? obj 22


Define the trigeminal nerve (V). obj 22

The name tells us that this nerve has 3 divisions;
-OPHTHALMIC or VI ("eye") for the eyes and forehead
-MAXILLARY or V2 for the cheek and upper jaw (maxilla)
-MANDIBULAR or V3 for the lower jaw (mandible).
The trigeminal is the largest cranial nerve.

Management of the trigeminal nerve is a critical part of a ____________ practice. obj 22


The trigeminal nerve also as the sensory function of ________ for the jaw muscles. This keeps us from crushing our teeth by biting down too hard on a nut or seed; the trigeminal helps the jaw muscles relax as soon as the force on the teeth releases. obj 2


The _______ function of the trigeminal nerve is for the muscles of mastication. These are the four chewing muscles. obj 22


Describe the cranial nerve VII (facial nerve). obj 22

primarily motor for the muscles of facial expression but has some other motor functions and sensory function as well.

The facial nerve innervates the _______________ ("to weep") which produces tears and the _______________ and ______________ whic produce saliva. obj 22

lacrimal glands
sublingual glands

The _________ function of the facial nerve is to carry taste info from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. This info joins with the other taste fibers to form a special nerve call the ____________ which is not one of the cranial nerves but important to know..

chorda tympani

What is the 8th cranial nerve? obj 22

VIII Vestibulocochlear

Describe the 8th cranial nerve Vestibulocochlear. obj 22

Carries sensory info from the special sense organs of the inner ear.

The Vestibulocochlear has 3 nerves, what are they? obj 22

VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE: has 2 divisions. On the gross view of the brain, the divisions can easily be seen; the nerve looks like a figure 8 in cross section.
COCHLEAR BRANCH: carries info from the spiral shaped cochlea ("snail"). The cochlea is responsibl

What is the IX cranial nerve? obj 22

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Define the glossopharyngeal nerve. obj 22

innervates the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and the pharynx. Remember that taste info for the anterior 2/3 of the tongue is carried on the facial nerve. Taste for the remainder of the tongue is carried on CN IX.

CN IX also innervates the __________ gland, the largest of the salivary glands. obj 22


Another important homeostatic function of teh glossopharyngeal is to carry info from the ____________, a sensory organ on the carotid arter which senses BP. obj 22

carotid body

What is the X CN? obj 22

Vagus Nerve

Define the vagus nerve. obj 22

travels widely over the neck, thorax and abdomen innervating a wide variety of internal organs.
It carries some taste info from taste buds in the soft palate and uvula. mostly however the vagus carries autonomic parasympathetic info to the int

What is the XI CN? obj 22

(Spinal) Accessory Nerve

Describe the (spinal) accessory nerve. obj 22

The accessory nerve (aka spinal accessory nerve) is pure motor, innervating two muscles: the trapezis along the back of the neck and shoulders and the sternocleidomastoid which connects the sternum, clavicle and mastoid process of the temporal bone.

What is the XII CN? obj 22

Hypoglossal Nerve

Describe the hypoglossal nerve. obj 22

under" "tongue"
is purely motor, and does only one thing, it sticks out the tongue.
NOTE: one odd thing is that the tongue is pulled forward out of the mouth; since muscles can only pull and not push.