# Principles of Chemistry 2 Test 1: chaps 12, 13

Henry's Law

Sgas=kh x Pgas
where Sgas=solubilty, Kh= henry's law constant (M/atm), and Pgas= partial pressure (atm)

Molarity

M=mol/L

Molality

m=moles solute/kg solvent

Percent by Mass

mass solute x 100/ mass solution

Parts per million

ppm= mass solute x 10^6/ mass solution

Parts by volume

Volume solute x multiplication factor/ volume solution
Where multiplication factor = 10^6, 10^9, etc...

mole fraction

Xsolute= n solute/ n solute + n solvent

mole percent

mole fraction(X) x 100%

Raoult's Law

Psolution= Xsolvent x Pdegreessolvent
Where Psolution= vapor pressure, Xsolvent= mole fraction, and Pdegreessolvent= vapor pressure

Vapor Pressure Lowering

DeltaP=i x Xsolute x Pdegreessolvent
Where i = van't hoff factor, Xsolute = mole fraction, and Pdegreessolvent = vapor pressure

Freezing Point Depression

Delta T= i x kf x m
Where i= Van't hoff factor, kf= freezing point constant, and m= molality

Boiling Point Elevation

Delta T= i x kb x m
Where i=Van't Hoff factor, kb= boiling point constant, and m= molality

Vapor pressure of a solution containing 2 volatile components

PA=XA + PdegreesA
PB=XB + PdegreesB
Ptotal= PA + PB

Osmotic Pressure

pi= iMRT
Where i= van't hoff factor, M= Molarity, R= .08206 L x atm/ mol x K, and T=K

Van't Hoff factor

i= moles of particles in solution/moles of formula units dissolved

Rate Reaction

For an equation aA + bB ---> cC + dD, the rate is defined as:
rate= 1/-a x Delta [A]/ Delta T = 1/-b x Delta [B]/Delta T = 1/c x Delta[B]/ Delta T = 1/d x Delta [D]/ Delta T

Rate Law for a single reactant

Rate = k [A]^n

Rate Law for a multiple reactant

Rate = K[A]^n[B]^m

Integrated Rate Law for zero-order

[A]= -kt + [A]0
units of k= M x s^-1

Integrated Rate Law for first-order

ln[A]= -kt + ln[A]0
units of k = s^-1

Integrated Law for Second-order

1/[A]= kt + 1/ [A]0
units of k = m^-1 x s^-1

Half Life for First-Order

t1/2= .693/k
.693=ln(2)

Half life for Zero-order

t1/2= [A]0/2k

Half Life for Second Order

t1/2= 1/ k[A]0

Arrhenius Equation/ Activation Energy

k= A e^-Ea/RT
Where k= constant, A= frequency factor, Ea=Activation Energy, R= 8.314J/mol x K, T=K

Linearized form of the Arrhenius Equation

lnk= -Ea/R x (1/T) + lnA

Two-point form of the Arrhenius Equation

ln(k2/k1)= Ea/R x (1/T1-1/T2)

Collision Theory from the Arrhenius Equation

k=pz x e^-Ea/RT
Where p= orientation factor, z= collision frequency (amount of collisions/unit of time)