Organic Chem 1

Ionic Bonds

formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to create ions, it is the attractive force between oppositely charged ions

Ions

Charged particles

Covalent Bonds

The result of the sharing of electrons between atoms

Electronegativity

A measure of the ability of an atom to attract electron, increasing from left to right on the periodic table

cation

A positively charged ion

anion

A negatively charged ion

Linear

Angles between bonding 180

trigonal planar

Angles between bonding 120

tetrahedral

Angles between bonding 109.5

trigonal pyramidal

Angles between bonding 107

bent

Angles between bonding 105

trigonal bipyramidal

Angles between bonding 90 & 120

square

Angles between bonding 90

octahedral

Angles between bonding 90

T shape

Angles between bonding 90

square pyramidal

Angles between bonding 90

exceptions to the octet rule

expanded valence, electron deficient

expanded valence

elements of the 3rd period and beyond have d orbitals that can be used for bonding sulfer, phosperous, xenon, flourine, chlorine, silicon

electron deficient

boron 6, beryllium 4

Formal Charge

(# of valence electrons - (1/2)shared) - unshared

Isomers

compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures

functional groups

chemical groups attached to carbon skeletons that give compounds their functionality

alkenes

Hydrocarbons involving carbon-carbon double bonds

alkynes

Hydrocarbons involving carbon-carbon triple bonds

meth

single carbon

eth

2 hydrocarbon compound

prop

3 hydrocarbon compound

But

4 hydrocarbon compound

pent

5 hydrocarbon compound

saturated hydrocarbon

A hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds

unsaturated hydrocarbon

A hydrocarbon in which one or more of the bonds between carbon atoms is double or triple

ene

alkenes end with

ane

alkanes end with

alkanes

A hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds

amine

any member of a family of nitrogen-containing organic compounds that is derived, either in principle or in practice, from ammonia (NH3).

alkals

contains at least one nitrogen atom in an amine-type structure´┐Żi.e., one derived from ammonia by replacing hydrogen atoms with hydrogen-carbon groups called hydrocarbons.

amide

derived from carboxylic acids. A carboxylic acid contains the -COOH group, and in an amide the -OH part of that group is replaced by an -NH2 group. So, amides contain the -CONH2 group.

Strong acid

large Ka value of acid

strong base

large pKa of acid