Chapter 15: Crimes of the New Millennium: Cybercrime

The process of creating transnational markets, politics, and legal systems in an effort to form and sustain a global economy is called __________.

globalization

What is the difference between the first and third generations of cybercrimes?

First-generation crimes existed before the creation of computers and the Internet, while third- generation crimes came about as the result of the creation of the Internet.

Cybercrime has effected criminals by __________ their risks and __________ their returns on criminal activity.

decreasing; increasing

What is the difference between cyberthieves and cybervandals?

Cyberthieves use the Internet for illegal profit; cybervandals use the Internet for revenge, destruction, or malicious activity.

The practice of launching Internet attacks against an enemy nation's technological infrastructure is called __________.

cyberterrorism

Attaching an electronic device or camera to an ATM that copies information from a bank card's magnetic strip whenever a customer uses the machine or photographs their key strokes is called __________.

skimming

The "salami slice" is an example of what type of cybercrime?

computer fraud

A national retailer's computer system has been hacked, and the names and personal information of its customers have been stolen. You receive a letter instructing you to cut up your credit card with this retailer and request a new one. What type of cybercr

corporate espionage

Malicious software that blocks access to a user's system until monetary compensation is received is called ___________.

ransomware

What is the difference between porn-nappers and typosquatters?

Porn-nappers buy expired domains and use them to redirect visitors to pornography, and typosquatters register misspellings of common websites for the same purpose.

What is ehooking?

using the Internet to advertise sexual services and make contact with clients

The computer network that can only be opened with specific software configurations, is virtually untraceable, and uses nonstandard computer protocols and ports is referred to as the __________.

darknet

Illegally obtaining software, games, or movies and copying them to make available for others' use free of charge on the Internet is referred to as __________.

warez

What federal law makes it illegal to circumvent the antipiracy measures built into most commercial software?

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

What is the difference between illegal touting and market manipulation?

Illegal touting involves recommending securities to others without disclosing monetary compensation received, while market manipulation involves controlling the price of stock by interfering with supply and demand.

Sending out emails that appear to be from legitimate organizations but are illegal attempts to get recipients to reveal personal financial information is called __________.

phishing

Which of the following is an example of identity theft?

applying for a line of credit using someone else's name

What is identity theft?

using the Internet to steal someone's identity and conduct illicit transactions, such as fraud, using the victim's name and identity

Which of the following is an example of cybervandalism?

swatting

Compare a computer virus with a computer worm.

A virus spreads through the actions of a computer operator via email or file sharing, while a worm is malware that self-replicates and send itself to users.

A type of cyberattack that involves multiple compromised systems, often infected with a virus, to target a single system is called __________.

distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS)

Research shows that cyberbullying affects lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students disproportionally; LGBT students are __________ percent more likely than their non-LGBT peers to feel unsafe or uncomfortable as a result of their sexual ori

61

Setting up a fictitious online profile to lure another into a fraudulent romantic relationship is a cyberbullying practice called __________.

catfishing

Which congressional act made computer crimes a distinct federal offense?

Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984

Efforts by intelligence agencies to penetrate computer networks of enemy nations in order to steal important data is called __________.

cyberespionage

Attacks such as the "salami-slice" and the "one-off kamikaze" are categorized as which type of cybercrimes?

cybertheft

How many people were affected in the eighth-largest computer hacks in the two years prior to this video?

300 million

At the time of this report, cybertheft had increased by __________ percent over the previous five years, with an average annual cost of __________.

96; $13 million

According to the video, what makes it difficult for law enforcement to catch the perpetrators of this type of cybertheft?

Criminals operate in remote countries where the United States can't easily arrest them.

According to experts, cybercrime has gone through several stages of development to get to where it is today. Compare the behaviors in the first stage with those of the third stage.

Behaviors in the first stage already existed prior to the Internet, while behaviors in the third stage would not exist if it weren't for the Internet.

How does cyberbullying compare to cyberstalking?

While both utilize the Internet, cyberbullying involves sending harassing and aggressive messages, but cyberstalking involves the pursuit of another person (sometimes for sexual purposes).

According to research with middle school and high school students, what relationship exists between traditional bullying and cyberbullying?

Students who have been bullied in school have also been cyberbullied.

What is typically the source of the power imbalance in cyberbullying?

Internet proficiency

What does the term "catfishing" refer to?

setting up a fictitious online profile, most often for the purpose of luring another person into a fraudulent romantic relationship