Toxicology Exam 3

Which of the following is NOT TRUE regarding metallothionein?
A. it is naturally occurring in the body
B. gene expression can affect how much of it is present
C. it plays a role in detoxifying metals
D. soils are a natural sink (storage site) for metallot

soils are a natural sink (storage site) for metallothionein

The effects of heavy metals on a person can be affected by which of the following?
A. immune system
B. chemical speciation
C. dose
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C

A, B, and C

The major source of mercury in dietary exposures is elemental mercury?


When mercury ______________ in/from the food chain, _____________ mercury is being converted to _____________ mercury


What characteristic contributes to elemental mercury's negative health consequences?

it is lipid soluble

Which of the following is true regarding cadmium exposure?

ingestion is a major source of exposure

What is the major contributing factor mechanistically for heavy metal toxicity?

the high affinity of the cationic form for sulfur

Which of the following are relevant to chelation therapy?
A. the administration of a compound which will essentially neutralize the heavy metal exposure
B. the use of British Anti-Lewisite compounds
C. medical treatment for radiological exposures
D. A and

A and B

Organometallic mercury bioaccumulates in marine species often ingested by humans


What are the major organs or organ systems adversely affected by elemental mercury?

nervous system, kidneys, respiratory system

Cadmium can be lethal with acute doses as low as

1 gram (g)

Batteries are a source of both cadmium and lead


Which of the following does not belong?
A. carcinogen
B. contaminated water
C. increased ATP production
D. arsenic exposure
E. pesticides

increased ATP production (arsenic inhibits production of ATP)

Which of the following forms of chromium is the least toxic?
A. +6
C. soluble
D. trivalent
E. hexavalent


Short-term, whole-body exposure to radiation causes ________ and ________ in the small intestines

-gene expression changes

The presence of cataracts:
I. will appear sooner after higher doses of radiation exposure compared to lower doses
II. as a result of radiation exposure in astronauts has be epidemiologically proven
III. in astronauts is often compared to a control exposur

I, II, and III

The atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to radiation, exhibit an increase in most cancers as a population. Which kind of cancer appear first?

leukemia before solid cancer

In terms of the population as a whole, why do cancers that appear first in the atomic bomb survivors do so before the other kind?

rate of cell division

In research processes, p-values are usually considered statistically significant if they are less than


Researchers must choose animal models wisely for experiments based upon evidence. This includes accounting for genetic differences among strains of similar species. What is something that might cause one strain of mouse to a radio-sensitive and another st

A and B

Radiation can cause __________ in DNA, highlighting the importance of _________ proteins. These proteins or pathways are ____________ dependent

-cell cycle

Why is high charge, high energy (HZE) radiation dangerous for human health?A. it creates damage which is more difficult to repair than other kinds of radiation
B. it is densely ionizing
C. it creates damage which is clustered close together
D. the DNA dam

all of the above

Differences in cellular compartments or tissue morphology do NOT need to be considered when studying the potential for cancer development after radiation exposure


Which statement is true regarding radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI)?
A. the scientific community understands the mechanisms behind RIGI very well
B. epigenetics may play a role in RIGI
C. there can be genetic differences within cells of a singl

B and C

The plant known as __________ has atropine like affects which can raise HR, dilate pupils, cause hallucinations, and more

Jimson weed

Stings or bites from which organism often contain formic acid?


Toxic substances in nature which can be dangerous to human health can also be therapeutic if use correctly. This makes _________ important to preserve and discover.
A. biodiversity
B. rainforest
C. oceans
D. extraterrestrial species
E. all of the above

all of the above

The following criteria describe mycotoxicosis:
I. the compound must usually be ingested
II. the culprit compound is usually a metabolite
III. a fungal lung infection
A. I only
B. II only
C. III only
D. I and II only
E. I, II, and III

I and II only

What kind of toxin does the endophytic fungus which infects fescue plants emit?


Alfatoxin may be toxic at does as low as a few ppt (trillion) in some animals

false (ppm and ppb but not ppt)