Biological Basis AP Psychology

EEG

What technique is used when electrodes record rapid changes in brain electrical activity (what types of waves the brain produces during different stages of consciousness) to generalize about the localization of brain function; and is widely used in sleep

CAT

What technique is used to generate cross-sectional images of the brain using a series of X-ray pictures taken from different angles?

MRI

What technique is used when extremely powerful electromagnets and radio waves are used to provide a 3-D structural information of the brain (structure not function - still not showing brain in action)?

fMRI

What technique is used with rapid sequencing of powerful electromagnetic and radio wave images that allows us to be able to view the brain as it is working?

PET

What technique records radioactivity of various brain areas emitted from injected chemicals (glucose) so allows researchers to view the brain as it is working?

Corpus Callosum

What is the name of the connective nerve fibers that join together the two hemispheres of the brain?

Contralateral Processing

What is the term for how the two hemispheres of the brain can operate independently of each other?

Roger Sperry

Who demonstrated contralateral processing?

Brainstem

What part of the Central Nervous system receives sensory input from the head (5 senses) and sends impulses for motor control of the head?

Sensory Afferent neurons

The nerves sending information to the brain are known as...

Motor Efferent neurons

The nerves that convey information from the brain are known as...

Reflexes

The quick and involuntary responses to environmental stimulus (path goes from sensory neurons to motor neurons)are known as...

Reticular activating system (RAS)

What part of the Hindbrain controls arousal (wakefulness and alertness)?

Cerebellum

What part of the hindbrain is known as the "Little Brain" and controls muscle tone and balance?

Medulla oblongata

What part of the hindbrain controls involuntary actions, such as breathing, digestion, heart rate, and swallowing?

Pons

What part of the hindbrain is latin for "bridge" and acts as a way station passing neural information from one brain region to another and is also implicated in REM sleep?

Tectum and tegmentum

Which parts of the midbrain govern visual and auditory reflexes (such as orienting to a sight or sound)?

Limbic system

What is considered the emotional center of the brain and is located in the forebrain?

Thalamus

What part of the limbic system relays sensory information and receives and directs sensory information from visual and auditory systems?

Hippocampus

What part of the limbic system is involved in processing and integrating new memories?

Amygdala

What part of the limbic system is implicated in the expression of anger and frustration?

Hypothalamus

What part of the limbic system controls the temperature and water balance of the body; controls hunger and sex drives; orchestrates the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system?

Cerebral Cortex

The wrinkled outer layer of the brain that is divided into four lobes that are essentially involved in higher cognitive functions such as thinking, planning, language use, and fine motor control?

Sensory Cortex

The area of the cerebral cortex that receives sensory input is known as the...

Motor Cortex

The area of the cerebral cortex that sends out motor information is known as the...

Broca's area

Damage to what part of the brain causes expressive aphasia (loss of the ability to speak)?

Wernicke's area

Damage to what part of the brain causes receptive aphasia (inability to comprehend speech)?

Frontal Lobe

What lobe of the brain is responsible for higher level thought and reasoning (including working memory, paying attention, solving problems, making plans, forming judgments, and performing movements)?

Parietal Lobe

What lobe of the brain handles somatosensory information (temperature, pressure, texture, and pain) and is the home of the primary somatosensory cortex?

Temporal Lobe

What lobe of the brain handled auditory input and is critical for processing speech and appreciating music?

Occipital Lobe

What lobe of the brain processes visual input?

Apraxia

Damage to association areas of the cerebral cortex that leads to the inability to organize movement is known as...

Agnosia

Damage to association areas of the cerebral cortex that lead to a difficulty processing sensory input is known as...

Alexia

Damage to association areas of the cerebral cortex that lead to the inability to read is known as...

Agraphia

Damage to association areas of the cerebral cortex that causes the inability to write is known as...

Occipital Lobe

What lobe of the brain is located at the back of the head?

Pareital Lobe

What lobe is located in the top middle of your head approximately?

Temporal Lobe

What lobe is located on the side of the head?

Neuron

A nerve cell is called a....

Glia

The ____ support the neurons in many ways such as by insulating them, synchronizing activity among neighboring neurons, and removing waste products.

Soma

The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus of the cell is the cell body also known as ....

Dendrites

The part of the neuron that looks like a "tree" - widely branching structures - and receives transmissions from other neurons are the...

Axon

The single, long, thin, straight fiber with branches near its tip - that sends/transmits information for a neuron is the...

Myelin sheath

The fatty covering of some neurons that speeds up neural impulses is the...

Action Potential

An excitation that travels along an axon at a constant strength, no matter how far it must travel is known as the...

All or none law

The best way to describe the firing of a neuron is...

Sodium and Potassium

What two elements are involved with the action potential?

Leak

As part of the action potential, the channels that are open all the time and allow ions to go across the membrane according to their gradient are known as ___ channels.

Negative

As part of the polarization of a cell at resting membrane potential, the cell will have a ____ charge on the inside.

Positive

As part of the polarization of a cell at resting membrane potential, the cell will have a ___ charge on the outside.

Nodes of Ranvier

The small gaps between the "beads" that make up the myelin of an axon are the...

Refractory Period

The time period when the positively charged sodium ions are pushed OUT of the axon before the neuron can fire again is known as the...

Synapses

The specialized junctions/gaps between one neuron and another are known as...

Terminal buttons

The axon ends in ____ (knobs on branched end of the axon) that release neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that are released across the synapse are...

Excitatory

_____ neurotransmitters serve to cause the neuron to fire.

Inhibitory

_____ neurotransmitters serve to stop cell firing.

Reuptake

When the neurotransmitter is reabsorbed by the axon that released it, it is known as...

Acetylcholine

What neurotransmitter affects memory functions, as well as muscle contraction particularly in the heart?

Serotonin

What neurotransmitter is related to arousal, sleep, pain, sensitivity, and mood and hunger regulation?

Dopamine

What neurotransmitter is associated with movement, attention, and reward (and plays a role in Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia)?

GABA

Which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and low levels of it are linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia?

Glutamate

Which is an excitatory neurotransmitter and the all-purpose counterpart to GABA?

Norepinephrine

What neurotransmitter affects levels of alertness and is implicated in depression?

Endorphins

What are the body's natural painkillers?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

The brain and the spinal cord make up which system?

Peripheral Nervous System

The bundles of nerves between the spinal cord and the rest of the body make up what system?

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

The Autonomic Nervous System and the Somatic Nervous System are all part of what system?

Autonomic Nervous System

The part of the Peripheral Nervous System that controls the heart, stomach, and other organs is the...

Somatic Nervous System

The part of the Peripheral Nervous System that controls our voluntary muscle movements is the...

Autonomic Nervous System

The parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous systems are all in the ___ which is part of the Peripheral Nervous System.

Sympathetic Nervous System

The "fight or flight" response is part of the ____.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy is the ____.

Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations is the ____.

Endocrine System

The body's slow chemical communication system that includes a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream is the _____.

Hormones

Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another are ____.

Pituitary Gland

The endocrine system's most influential gland (the master gland);under the influence of the hypothalamus and regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands is the ___.

Adrenal

Which gland produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which signals the rest of the body to prepare for fight or flight?

ACTH

What hormone stimulates the adrenal glands?

Thyroid

What gland located at the front of the neck) produces thyroxine which is important for regulating cellular metabolism?

Traits

Distinctive characteristics or behavior patterns that are determined by genetics are...

Chromosomes

Strands of hereditary material (found within the nucleus of your cells) are....

23

How many pairs of chromosomes do you have?

Genes

Sections along each chromosome that control the chemical reactions that direct development (chemical DNA) are...

Dominant

When a single copy of the gene is sufficient to produce its effect, the gene is known as...

Recessive

When the genes effects appear only if a dominant gene is absent, the gene is known as...

Genotype

Your ____ is comprised of all of the possible combinations of genes (aka full hereditary information) ...

Phenotype

Your _____ is the actual observable result (aka the dominant genes unless two recessives are paired) ...

a female

If a person has two X chromosomes, they are..

a male

If a person has one X and one Y chromosome, they are...

Heritability

An estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity is known as....

Monozygotic

What term is used for twins that develop from a single fertilized egg and therefore have identical genes?

Dizygotic

What term is used for twins that develop from two eggs and share only half their genes, like brother and sister?

Environmentality

The degree to which a trait's expression is caused by the environment in which an organism lives) is known as...

Down's Syndrome

A genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome is...

Huntington's Chorea

A genetic disorder that results in muscle impairment that does not typically occur until after age 40 that is caused by the degeneration of the structure of the brain known as the basal ganglia and is fatal is ...