Psychology 2301 Chapter 9

The study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially throughout the lifespan is called:

developmental psychology.

Genes make up _____ of DNA.

less than 2 percent

Which of the following BEST defines a gene?

A unit of DNA that encodes instructions for making a particular protein.

The term genotype refers to:

the genetic makeup of an organism.

The term phenotype refers to:

the observable characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

A teratogen is a:

harmful agent, such as a chemical, drug, or disease, that can cause malformations or defects in an embryo or fetus.

The newly born infant:

is able to see near objects more clearly than distant objects.

The basic sequence of motor skill development in infancy:

is generally the same for all infants.

According to attachment theory:

the quality of attachment plays an important role in determining an infant's ability to thrive physically and psychologically.

Piaget believed that each child:

actively tries to make sense of his or her environment.

In Piaget's theory, a schema is:

a mental representation of the world.

The zone of proximal development refers to:

the difference between what children can accomplish alone and what they can accomplish with the help of others.

In Piaget's theory, the term centration refers to the tendency to:

focus on only one aspect of a situation, ignoring other aspects of the situation that may also be relevant.

In Piaget's theory, the term irreversibility refers to the:

inability to reverse mental operations.

Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development held that:

psychosocial development continues throughout the lifespan, with each stage marked by a particular psychosocial conflict that can be resolved in a positive or negative way.

In comparison to male friendships, female friendships tend to focus on:

talking about their feelings, problems, and relationships.

During their last year of life, MOST older adults:

are in relatively good health, self-sufficient, and mentally alert.

According to the activity theory of aging:

older adults will achieve the highest level of life satisfaction if they maintain their previous level of activity.

Parenting styles can be described in terms of two dimensions:

parental control and parental responsiveness.

During the sensorimotor stage the:

infant acquires an understanding of object permanence.

Which of the following statements BEST describes deoxyribonucleic acid?

a double-stranded molecule that encodes genetic instructions

At the moment of conception, each person begins life as a single cell, which is called a(n):

zygote.

Which of the following represents the correct order of prenatal development?

germinal period, embryonic period, fetal period

Janeen touches her newborn's cheek. Her baby turns toward Janeen's hand and opens her mouth. Janeen has triggered which reflex?

the rooting reflex

If Claudia wishes to make sure that her newborn infant can see her face as clearly as possible, Claudia should position her face so that she is about _____ away from her newborn's face.

six to twelve inches

Ever since she was a few weeks old, Shelly has been an unusually contented baby who slept and ate well and adapted easily to new experiences. A developmental psychologist would probably describe Shelly's temperament as being:

easy.

Temperament researchers agree that individual differences in temperament have a genetic and biological basis. Researchers also agree that:

environmental experiences can modify a child's basic temperament.

When parents are consistently warm and responsive to their infant, the infant is likely to develop a(n) _____ attachment to the parents; when parents neglect the infant, are inconsistent, or insensitive to the infant's needs, the infant is likely to devel

secure; insecure

When Diana talks to her baby, she uses simple words and short sentences, a high-pitched voice, and exaggerated intonations and facial expressions. Diana is using a form of speech that is formally called:

infant-directed speech, or motherese.

Fourteen-month-old Adrian can say "bye-bye," "mama," "da-da," and "doggie." You can safely conclude that Adrian:

understands many more words than he can speak.

As Tim was swinging his toy hammer, the hammer flew out of his hand and landed behind the couch and out of view. Rather than look for it, Tim acted as though the hammer no longer existed. Tim's behavior suggests that he is in the _____ of cognitive develo

sensorimotor stage

Mark was upset because he only got half a sandwich while his older sister got two halves of a sandwich. After his mother cut his half sandwich into two pieces, Mark was perfectly happy. Mark is probably in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

preoperational

Your textbook describes the classic conservation task in which a 5-year-old child observes equal amounts of liquid in two identical short, wide containers. The child watches as liquid is poured from one short, wide container into a tall, thin container, a

The tall, thin container has more water.

Which of the following would characterize a child who is in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development?

The child can think logically but his or her use of logic tends to be limited to tangible events or objects.

Ten-year-old Ben helped his five-year-old sister, Hannah, learn how to tie her shoelaces. This example illustrates which concept?

Vygotsky's zone of proximal development

In adolescence, personal identity tends to shift from the _____ self-descriptions that characterized childhood to more _____ self-descriptions.

concrete; abstract

According to Erikson's theory, the psychosocial conflict that needs to be resolved during adolescence is:

identity versus role confusion.

Nicholas is 15 years old. Talking with his friends, he says, "Sometimes I think I would like to be a scientist, someone who makes discoveries that help people. Then I think that maybe a career in politics or medicine is more my style. I can't decide wheth

moratorium period

Thirty-year-old Alayna is painfully shy and so sensitive to rejection that she rarely talks to people other than her coworkers and her family members. Occasionally, a man asks her out, but she always refuses. She spends a good deal of time reading and wri

intimacy versus isolation; isolation

Psychological research has shown that, in general, people are most likely to marry someone:

who is similar in physical attractiveness, social and educational status, ethnicity, beliefs, and values.

Mrs. Hall has always enjoyed quiet, solitary pursuits, such as gardening and reading. Now that she is almost 80, the activity theory of aging would predict that her life satisfaction will be highest if she:

continues to pursue the activities that she has always enjoyed.

Anxiety about death tends to _____ in middle adulthood and _____ in late adulthood.

peak; decrease

Permissive-_____ parents are responsive to their children but do not exert much control over them. Permissive- _____ parents do not impose rules on their children and are also not very responsive to them.

indulgent; indifferent

Children with _____ parents are more likely to rebel, while children with _____ parents are more likely to lack self-control.

authoritarian; permissive

Which of the following is NOT recommended as an effective way for parents to foster psychological health in their children?

expect even very young children to think and behave like miniature adults