Biopsychology Vision Ch. 6.1

law of specific nerve energies

Johannes Muller's idea that whatever excites a particular nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve


If you feel intense pain it is because your pain receptors are firing with great _____


the ____ of a receptor's response determines how many action potentials the next set of neurons sends and their timing.

strength of a stimulus

The ____ determines the amount of a receptor cell's depolarization or hyperpolarization.


light enters the eye through this structure


light in the eye is focused by this adjustable structure


light in the eye is focused by this unadjustable structure


Light in the eye is projected onto this structure at the back of the eye


in the vertebrate retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____ cells, located closer to the center of the eye

ganglion cells

From bipolar cells the visual info is sent to these cells, located closer to the center of the eye

amacrine cells

These cells gather info from bipolar cells and refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond to shapes, movements, etc.

ganglion cells, bipolar cells

Light passes through these cells en route to the receptors

blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the ____


the blind spot has no ____


tiny area specialized for acute, detailed vision

bipolar cell

each receptor in the fovea connects to one ____, which connects to a single ganglion cell, having an axon to the brain

midget ganglion cells

the ganglion cells in the fovea of humans and other primates are called?

top half

hawks and other birds of prey have more visual receptors on the (top half/bottom half) of their retinas


some birds have two ___ per eye


these cells are abundant in the periphery of the eye


these cells are abundant near the fovea

rods to cones

In nocturnal animals, the ratio of ___ to ___ is much greater than in humans


chemicals that release energy when struck by light

350 to 700

human visual spectrum of wavelengths is ___ to ___ nm.

trichromatic theory

According to this theory, we can perceive different colors based on the ratio between the three different types of color receptors (cones)


a wavelength of 700nm is what color?

visual field

the part of the world that you see is called the ___ ____

color constancy

the ability to recognize colors despite changes in lighting. the down fall of the opponent process theory

retinex theory

To account for color and brightness constancy, this theory was proposed, in which the cortex compares info from various parts of the retina to determine the brightness and color for each area

color deficiency

Ppl can't distinguish between red and green because their long and medium wavelength cones have the same photopigment instead of different ones. This is the cause of the most common form of?