challenge for 21st century

maintaining & improving environmental quality

health people 2010 goal #8

promote health for all through a healthy environment

goal #8 objectives

-indoor/outdoor air quality
-healthy homes & communities
-water quality
-infrastructure & surveillance
-global environmental health

3 P's

principle health determinants worldwide
-population, pollution, poverty


combustion of fossil fuels that disperse greenhouse gases into the atmosphere
-may cause global warming
-may cause change in distribution of insect vectors


overpopulation in developing countries leading humans to exceed the carrying capacity
-12 billion worldwide

avian influenza

outbreak on poultry farms in Asia in 2004
-32/44 people died
-spread to continental Europe
-suspect humans were affected b/c of cross contamination


linked to overpopulation & is determinant of adverse health outcomes

morbidity & mortality

environmental epidemiology studies a population in relation to _______ & ______.
-toxic chemicals
-ionizing radiation


most vulnerable form of exposure to chemicals

environmental factors

thought to contribute to many forms of chronic diseases

environmental risk transition

characterizes changes in environmental risks that happen as consequence of economic development in less developed regions
-before this occurs, there is poor food/air/water quality
-after this occurs, problems of household risks are brought under control a

causes of population growth

increase in fertility & decrease in mortality

demographic transition

alterations over time in populations fertility, mortality, & make up

epidemiologic transition

describes shift in pattern of morbidity/mortality from causes related to infectious diseases

stage 1 demographic transition

Population mostly young, and fertility and mortality rates are high. Overall, the population remains small

stage 2 demographic transition

Mortality rates drop and fertility rates remain high.
There is a rapid increase in population, particularly among the younger age groups

stage 3 demographic transition

Fertility rates drop and cause a more even
distribution of the population according to age and sex

consequences of population increase

-carrying capacity exceeded
-food insecurity
-loss of biodiversity

factors leading to urbanization

-food availability
-employment opportunities
-lifestyle considerations
-escape from political content

hazards of urban environment

vectors & chemical pollutants added to environment by human activities

carrying capacity

the population that an area will support without undergoing environmental deterioration
-tends to limit population size

population crash

occurs when population growth exceeds carrying capacity
-loss of biodiversity


the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival

ecological model

proposes that the determinants of health (environmental, biological, and behavioral) interact and are interlinked over the life course of individuals


dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit

environmental health

comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychosocial factors in the environment


known as "the father of medicine

Bernardino Ramazzini

known as the founder of the field of occupational medicine