Chapter 20 and 24 guided reading

Identify the Spanish soldier who left detailed records of the Aztecs.

Bernal Diaz del Castillo, described Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, at its high point.

Identify the most important city of the Toltecs.


Identify the similarities between the Maya and the Toltecs and where are these similarities found.

The city of Chichen, and similar architectural designs and art motifs.

What caused the decline of the Toltec state?

A combination of civil conflict and nomadic incursion.

Who were the people that were later called Aztecs and identify their capital?

People from the North West region of Mexico, who were called Aztecs, because they built the empire. (Aztec means" Place of Seven legendary caves")

By the middle of the fifteenth century, with who did the Mexica form alliances?

Two neighboring cities, Texcoco and Tlapocan.

Identify who began the Aztec expansion and explain the social hierarchy.

expansion under Itzcoatl ("the obsidian serpent") and Moctezuma I
hierarchy where anyone can improve status through war. men are warriors, and aristocrats are military elites.

Describe how rulers among the Mexica were chosen.

chosen by a council, of accomplished warriors.

Describe the role of women in Aztec society and explain what happens if they died in childbirth.

women had no influence on political life, but had say on matters, inside their home
if a girl baby died, they received fame, as an accomplished warrior, who died in battle would

Explain the role of Mexica priests.

preside over religious services, they had a large political influence, because they explained how the world worked.

Where did most Mexica slaves come from?

other Mexica people, sold into slavery, or forced into, as a result of criminal behavior.

What happened when the Mexica migrated to central Mexico?

they adopted new religious and cultural traditions.

Describe the Aztecs purposes for sacrifices.

The Aztecs believed that the gods set the world in motion through individual sacrifice.
people preformed sacrifices to keep the Agricultural society going

Describe North American societies.

dependent on fishing, hunting, gathering. diets depended on the region that they lived in.societies were small scale, for food reasons.

Describe the lifestyles of the Pueblo and Navajo peoples of the American southwest

used rivers, to irrigate maize(corn, which was 80% of their diet)
ate plants and small game.

Identify the North American mound that was the third largest structure in the pre-Columbian Americas.

Cahokia, near East St. Louis, Illinois.

Describe the communication process of the North American Indian societies.

no writing, Cahokia was the center of trade and communication

What is the significance of Chanchan?

the capital city of the Chimu kingdom(Peru kingdom, before Incas)largest metropolitan area in the Americas, at this time.

Who was the most important ruler in the expansion of the Inca Empire?

Pachacuti ruled from 1438-1471, nickname=Earth-shaker

Describe how the Incas imposed order.

. by taking hostages from the conquered tribes' ruling classes.

Identify the mnemonic aid that was used for counting. consisting of small cords with

Quipi, established by Incas, it was an array of small cords with knots, to represent data.

Identify group that deliberated state policy in the presence of the mummies of their predecessors?

Inca ruling elites

Describe the cultural and religious traditions of the Australian aborigines.

cultural and religious traditions that related on local matters, and didn't appeal to people from other region and cultures.

Where was the massive stone palace at Nan Madol located?

In the Caroline Islands, on Pohnpei

What were the Hawaiian class of high chiefs known as?

Ali'i nui they intermarried, and lived lavish lives.

Identify the two centers of Spanish royal authority in the Americas

Lima, Peru, and Mexico City

Identify the reason as to why the Portuguese began to show much more interest in Brazil.

the establishment of profitable sugar plantations

Identify the difference between how the English, French, and Dutch differed from the Spanish in imperialistic goals.

The English French and Dutch were more interested in colonizing their lands, than the Spanish were

Identify the site in North America that was originally a Dutch colony.

New York

What happened to the English colony of Jamestown?

Was nearly destroyed due to mass starvation, during the winter of 1609-1610

In North America, the Europeans initially found a profitable commodity when they bartered for what?

Tabacco, they traded fish for it

Identify the characteristics/features of the native Americans that the English and French came into contact with.

the natives were very hostile towards the Europeans, when it came to their land.

The Virgin of Guadalupe essentially became a national symbol for ______.

Mexico faith

1. In the 1670s and 1680s, the Spanish were interested in consolidating control in which area because it lay directly on the route from Acapulco to Manila?