What is a computer?
programmable (usually electronic) that converts raw data into useful information
unlike other machines, computers are what type of machine and what does that mean?
computers are general purpose machines, which means they can be programmed to do different things
Input: raw data is entered
processing: this raw data is manipulated to create useful information
storage: this information can be stored for later retrieval.
output: the information can be returned to the user.
what are the for characteristics of the First Generation Computers (1940s)
1. massive in size
2. not reliable
3. vacuums were used to store and process data
4. programming was done by manipulating switches (took days)
what was the ENIAC?
it was a 1st generation computer that was the first to be digital, general purpose and electronic.
what was the UNIVAC?
it was a 1st generation computer that was first to be commercially available and it also predicted the 1952 election.
what do Second Generation computers (1950s) use to process data.
and what are the 4 ways in which they are different from 1st generation computers.
1. used transistors to process data
2. cheaper, smaller, faster, more reliable that the 1st generation computers
what do Third Generation computers (1960s) use to process data.
and what are the 4 ways in which they are different from 2nd generation computers.
1. integrated circuits (computer chips) that held a large number of transistors to process data.
2. faster, smaller, cheaper, and more reliable that 2nd generation computers.
what are the 4 characteristics of the Fourth Generation computer (1970s) and the 4 ways it is different from the 3rd generation computer.
1. used a microprocessor
2. these microprocessors were as powerful as the ENIAC
3. used a Central Processing Unit (CPU)
4. it was an extension of the 3rd generation computers
- it is cheaper, more reliable, faster, and smaller than the 3rd generation comp
what is a microprocessor and what is a CPU (Computer Processing Unit)
microprocessor: a complex, integrated, circuit that contains processing circuitry.
CPU: the main microprocessor in a computer
what is Moore's Law and who created it?
-it was a prediction created by Gordon Moore (co founder of Intel)
- he said that the number of transistors that could be placed on a computer chip could double every 2 years for at least a decade
-- but in reality it double every 18months for 50 years.
the more transistors on a chip....
the more faster and powerful the chip is.
What 2 things do computers use and what do they only allow for. give examples after.
computers use transistors and switches, which only allow for 2 possible values.
ex: true or false
ex: yes or no
ex: 1 or 0
the system of only holding 2 possible values is called what?
Binary Number System.
what needs to happen to all data entering into a computer? give examples.
all data must be converted into bits ( binary digits)
what exactly is a bit? (3)
1. smallest unit of digital data
2. equates to a single transistor on a computer chip
3. it can only hold 2 values (0 and 1)
is a single bit useful?
no it is not useful ( because a bit can only hold 2 values) but it is helpful to string the bits together to represent more values
ex: 2bits ---> 4 values
ex: 3 bits ---> (2^3) 8 values
ex: 8 bits ---> (2^8) 256 values
what is a byte?
unit of measurement that equal 8 bits (256 values)
how does a computer represent characters?
to represent characters, each symbol (like a ? or a letter, number etc) needs to be given a unique sequence of bits.
what is ASCII/Extended ASCII (3)
- developed for English and expanded for similar "Romance" languages.
-uses 1 byte (8 bits) to represent one character
----> ex: A = 0100 0001
- cannot be used to represent characters from other languages
what is Unicode? (4)
1. uses 2 bytes (16 bits)
2. can be used to represent characters from almost all languages
3. has been universally compatible
4. it's backwards compatible with ASCII
why is using a standard binary code like Unicode critical for communication?
because lets says a computer sends data to another computer who is using another binary code.
- that data cannot be interpreted by the other computer unless it is translated.
what is an example of storage capacities? (2)
what are bits used to measure?
bits are used to measure transfer rates like internet connection
what is Eronomics?
Ergonomics study the relationship between workers and their workspace.
why are jobs that mostly use computers bad?
they lead to many heath issues overtime.
what is virtual reality? (what do you wear?)
a artificial world composed of images and sounds created b a computer and is affected by the person who is experiencing it.
(you wear a headset)
what is augmented reality? (2)
1. an overlay virtual content on the physical world
2. but virtual content does not interact with the physical world
what is mixed reality?
holograms that you CAN interact with in the real world
what is distributed computing? (2)
1. distributes tasks among a group of computers
2. with distributed computing, a group of less powerful computer can ultimately preform the same tasks as a more powerful and more expensive computer
what is grid computing?
is a form of distributed computing that uses a group of computers in one location
what is volunteer computing?
it is a form of distributed computing but uses computers all over the world.
what is Ubiquitous computing? (3)
1. this is the technology that is kind of in the background and becomes part of the environment
2. also called invisible computing
3. this type of computing is all around us but is so common that we do not notice it.
what is embedded computing? Give examples
a specialized computer that is part of another device
ex: microwave ovens, gasoline pumps.
what is Internet of Things? (2) give an example
1. the connection between the physical world and the internet
2. they are devices that can be located, monitored, and controlled by embedded devices
ex: smart homes
what is Convergence? (2) give an example
1. the integration of different technologies onto a multifunction device
2. a device that can replace multiple devices
ex: smart phone
who is Joseph Marie Jacquard? (3)
1. created the Jacquard Loom
2. also created on the first programmable machines
3. programmed by punched cars
who is Charles Babbage?
1. people call him the founder of computers
2. came up for all of the concepts for making a computer
3. created an analytical engine (mechanical computer)
who is Ada Lovelace?
1. created programs
2. called the worlds first programmer
who was Alan Turing
1. father of AI (artificial Intelligence)
2. created the Turing test (to determine if you couldn't recognize that it was a computer vs a human being)
3. helped break Nazi codes during WWII
who is Grace Hopper?
1. accidentally coined the term "computer bug"
2. created first compilers