bio lec. 17

Which nervous system regulates conscious, voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles?

Somatic nervous system

Which are components of a visceral reflex arc?

Afferent neurons
Receptor in the stomach
Efferent neurons
Smooth muscle

Which of the following occurs during the fight-or-flight response?

Increased ATP production

Which activities are attributed to the parasympathetic division of the ANS?

Reduced energy expenditure
Waste elimination

Which nervous system controls glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle?


Which nervous system division has skeletal muscles as effectors?


Which division of the ANS is responsible for increasing heart rate, alertness, blood pressure, pulmonary airflow, blood-glucose concentration, and blood flow to the heart and skeletal muscles?

Sympathetic division

Which division of the ANS is associated with normal body maintenance?

Parasympathetic division

What is the other name for the autonomic nervous system?

Visceral motor system

What are the characteristics of a visceral reflex?


Which nervous system transmits only excitatory signals to effector cells?

Somatic nervous system

Which describes a preganglionic neuron in the ANS?

It has its cell body in the spinal cord or the brainstem and its axon terminates in a ganglion.

Which nervous system has two nerve fibers connecting the CNS to an effector?


Which division of the ANS is associated with the "fight-or-flight" response?


The efferent pathway of which nervous system uses both acetylcholine and norepinephrine as neurotransmitters?


Which efferent pathway has a single nerve fiber extending from the CNS to effector?


Cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic fibers are found in the ________ horn of gray matter in the spinal cord.


Neurons in which nervous system division secrete only acetylcholine?


The sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the ______ division as it arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.


The division of the ANS that has relatively short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers is the ______ division.


Which describes the sympathetic chain ganglia?

A longitudinal series of ganglia adjacent to both sides of the vertebral column

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers typically synapse with sympathetic chain ganglia unless they pass through, forming _________ nerves that instead enter collateral ganglia.


What are the three collateral ganglia of the abdominal plexus?

Celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric

The division of the ANS and the adrenal medulla develop from the same embryonic tissue


How many major collateral ganglia are found on the aorta?


The nerves of the sympathetic nervous system arise from which regions of the spinal cord?

thoracic & lumbar

Which hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla?


Parasympathetic fibers leave the brainstem through which cranial nerves?

Vagus (X)
Facial (IX)
Glossopharyngeal (VII)
Oculomotor (III)

The adrenal gland has two parts, an outer rim called the _________ _________ and an inner portion called the ________ _________.

adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla

After entering the sympathetic chain, preganglionic nerve fibers may do which of the following?

Pass through the sympathetic chain without synapsing, forming splanchnic nerves
Immediately synapse with postganglionic fibers
Move up or down the chain and synapse in ganglia at other levels

Which plexuses receive parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve?

Esophageal plexus
Cardiac plexus
Pulmonary plexus

From which regions of the CNS do the nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system arise?

Sacral division of spinal cord

The _________ nervous system consists entirely of neurons embedded in the wall of the digestive tract and does not originate from the brain or spinal cord.


Which neurons secrete acetylcholine?

Most postganglionic parasympathetic neurons
Most preganglionic sympathetic neurons
Most preganglionic parasympathetic neurons

Functions of the enteric nervous system include

To regulate motility through the digestive tract
To regulate the secretion of digestive enzymes

The neurotransmitter ______ binds to cholinergic receptors.


Which neurotransmitter is released by both preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division?


Which type of receptor can either be inhibited or excited by the binding of acetylcholine?


Which nerve fibers secrete norepinephrine?

Postganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic division

The division of the ANS that has general and widespread effects is the ________ division.


describes an alpha-adrenergic receptor?

It is usually excitatory and may use a calcium second messenger system.

_________ receptors are cholinergic receptors that are found at the synapses of all autonomic ganglia, on cells of the adrenal medulla, and at neuromuscular junctions.


Which describes a beta-adrenergic receptor?

It is usually inhibitory.
It inhibits smooth muscle of the bronchioles, enhancing airflow.
It uses a cAMP second messenger system.

Within the ANS, the effects of the ______ division are often general and widespread, while in the _______ division the effects are more specific and local.

sympathetic, parasympathetic

What are the effects of the sympathetic division on the eye?

Pupillary dilation
Relaxation of the ciliary muscle and lens for far vision

What effect does the parasympathetic system have on the respiratory system?


effects of the sympathetic division on the circulatory system?

Vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin
Vasoconstriction of visceral blood vessels
Increased blood clotting
Increased heart rate

What effect does the parasympathetic division have on the adrenal medulla?

it has no effect on the adrenal medulla

Which division of the ANS causes bronchodilation in the respiratory system?


Which of the following are sympathetic effects on the integumentary system?

Secretion from apocrine sweat glands
Secretion from merocrine sweat glands

Which are effects of the parasympathetic division on the digestive system?

Increased gastric motility
Increased pancreatic enzyme secretion
Increased gastrointestinal secretion

Regulation of pupillary constriction and dilation is an example of the ______ effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions on the same organ.


The phenomenon where the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions work together to produce a unified outcome is called a(n) ______ effect.


Which are only innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers?

Adrenal medulla
Sweat glands
Piloerector muscles

Which is a recording of all nodal and myocardial action potentials in the heart?


The ______ nerve conveys parasympathetic signals to the heart.


Stimulation of the SA node by the which division of the nervous system raises the heart rate?