Information Granularity

the extent of detail within the information

Real-time Information

immediate, up-to-date information

Real-time systems

provide real-time information in response to requests

Information Inconsistency

occurs when the same data element has different values

Information Integrity Issues

occur when a system produces incorrect, inconsistent, or duplicate data

Data Governance

the overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data


maintains information about various types of objects(inventory), events(transactions), people(employees), and places(warehouses)

Database Management System (DBMS)

creates, reads, updates, and deletes data in a database while controlling access and security

Query-by-Example(QBE) Tool

helps users graphically design the answer to a question against a database

Structured Query Language(SQL)

asks users to write lines of code to answer questions against a database

Data Element(data field)

the smallest or basic unit of information

Data Models

logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures


provides details about data

Data Dictionary

compiles all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model

Relational Database Model

store information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables

Relational Database Management System

allows users to create, read, update and delete data in a relational database


stores information about a person, place, thing, transaction, or event


the data elements associated with an entity


a collection of related data elements

Primary Key

a field that uniquely identifies a given record in a table

Foreign Key

a primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between two tables

Physical View of Information

deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device

Logical View of Information

focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs

Information Redundancy

the duplication of data, or the storage of the same data in multiple places

Information Integrity

a measure of the quality of information

Integrity Constraints

rules that help ensure the quality of information

Relational Integrity Constraints

rules that enforce basic and fundamental information-based constraints

Business Rule

defines how a company performs certain aspects of its business and typically results in a yes/no true/false answer

Business-Critical Integrity Constraints

enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints

Content Creator

the person responsible for creating the original website content

Content Editor

the person responsible for updating and maintaining website content

Static Information

includes fixed data incapable of change in the event of a user action

Dynamic Information

includes data that change based on user actions

Dynamic Catalog

an area of a website that stores information about products in a database

Data-Driven Website

an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database

Data Warehouse

a logical collection of information gathered from many different operational databases, that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks

Extraction, Transformation, and Loading(ETL)

a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms it using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads it into a data warehouse

Data Mart

contains a subset of data warehouse information

Information Cube

the common term for the representation of multidimensional information

Information Cleansing or Scrubbing

a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information

Data Quality Audits

determine the accuracy and completeness of its data

Data Mining

the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone

Data Mining Tools

use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information that predict future behavior and guide decision making

Structured Data

already in a database or spread sheet

Unstructured Data

do not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails, and so on

Text Mining

analyzes unstructured data associated with websites to identify consumer behavior and website navigation

Cluster Analysis

a technique used to divide information sets into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible

Association Detection

reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships

Market Basket Analysis

analyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services

Statistical Analysis

performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis

Time-series information

time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency


predictions based on time-series information


accessing large amounts of data from different management information systems


displays information graphically so it can be easily understood

Data Visualization

describes technologies that allow users to "see" or visualize data to transform information into a business perspective

Data Visualization Tools

move beyond Excel graphs and charts into sophisticated analysis techniques such as pie charts, controls, instruments, maps, time-series graphs, and more

Business Intelligence Dashboards

track corporate metrics such as critical success factors and key performance indicators and include advanced capabilities such as interactive controls allowing users to manipulate data for analysis