Russian Revolution

Czar Nicholas II

(1868-1918) Czar of Russia (1894-1917). He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution's leadership.


Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI

Vladimir Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)


More moderate memebers of the marxist movement

The Reds

Communists in the Civil War, led by Leon Trotsky.

The Red Army

They won the Russian Civil War and established Russia as the first communist country in the world. They were the Bolshevik soldiers led by Lenin.

The Whites

Counter revolutionaries who remained loyal to the czar; Anti-Bolsheviks who fought against communist with the help of the Allies.

The White Army

The Bolsheviks enemy at home, which was eventually crushed by the Red Army.


Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advice on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death


The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.


an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

Revolution 1905

a historical term describing a wave of political terrorism, strikes, peasant unrests, mutinies, both anti-government and undirected, that swept through vast areas of the Russian Empire as a result of Nicholas II's political failure, leading to the establishment of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, multi-party system and the Russian Constitution of 1906.

Karl Marx

A German who advocated total social, economical, and political revolution, which went against all capitalist thoughts and ideas. Under his system, there was no government, no religion, no private property, and complete equality. Co-wrote the Communist Manifesto... introduced communist beliefs to the world.


An organized persecution or massacre of an ethnic group (specifically Jews)

Industrialization in Russia

Russia industrialized very late on - there was an initial phase in the 1880s with the establishments of great factories producing textiles (for uniforms), steel - for railways and armaments and coal mines to power it all. Then there was another burst of activity after the start of WWI - again producing mostly for the government - arms, textiles and steel.

Provisional Government

A temporary government created by the Duma after the abdication of the czar; it made the decision to remain in World War One, costing it the support of the soviets and the people.


Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of productionClass of people without access to producing property; usually manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agriculture, or urban poor

Bloody Sunday

1905 march in which a Russian orthodox priest led hundreds peacefully to St. Petersburg to fight for working-class rights; they arrived at the palace to find their Czar gone and a fleet of soldiers present to shoot them all down. Hundreds died. This is possibly the start of the Russian Revolution.

March Revolution

1917 Czar Nickolas was forced to give up his thrown; set up a provisional government.( March 1917- October 1917)As a result of this revolution the Romanov dynasty was removed from power after 300 years of autocratic rule and replaced with the provisional government led by Alexander Kerenski

New Economic Policy

(NEP) Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a tactical retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulat agrarian production.


After 1881 the empire adopted a program of Russification. Various nationalities - Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Caucasus ethnic groups, German communities and Muslims in Central Asia - were all forced to assimilate to the Great Russian culture. For example, they were forced to speak only Russian.

Execution of the Romanovs

The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into exile - notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov - were shot in Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918.[1] The Tsar and his family were executed by Bolsheviks led by Yakov Yurovsky under the orders of the Ural Soviet. Some historians attribute the order to the government in Moscow, specifically Vladimir Lenin and Yakov Sverdlov, who wished to prevent the rescue of the Imperial Family by approaching White forces during the ongoing Russian Civil War

How did the rise of nationalism lead to the revolutionary period in Russia?