Chapter 20

What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 say?

It explained how to become a state, and the process you needed to go through if you wanted to create a state. It also banned slavery north of the Ohio River

What were the results of the Northwest Ordinance?

Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio were created North of the Ohio river, making them freeKentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi were created south of it, making them slave states.

What was the Unspoken agreement of 1819?

Congress agreed that the number of slave states and free states must remain equal.

Why did the Unspoken agreement of 1819 matter?

It was important because it made sure that each side (free and slave) had an equal say in congress.

What was the tallmadge amendment?

Missouri wanted to become apart of the Union as a slave state. But this would upset the balance in congress. James Tallmadge said that Missouri should enter the union as a free state. It didn't pass

Where did non-slave states have more votes, HOR or S. Why?

The HOR had more votes because the north had more states.

What is "secession"?

The act of withdrawing from an organization or alliance, such as the withdrawal of the southern states from the union.

What was the The Missouri Compromise of 1820?

Since Maine was now requesting to enter the Union as a free state, both states entered the unionMaine-FreeMissouri-SlaveIt also created an imaginary line on the southern border of Missouri saying anything above will be free, and below it will be slave with the exception of MissouriThe line was 36* Latitude

What is an abolitionist?

An abolitionist is someone who is against slavery and wants to abolish it.

Where did abolitionists want to ban slavery? Why did they think they could ban it there?

They wanted to ban slavery in the nation's capital because they thought that if slavery was going to stop then it should not be allowed in the capital.

How did pro-slavery Congressmen react to abolitionists' petitions about ending slavery in D.C?

They decided to table (to set aside) the petitions

How did abolitionists react to the tabling of their petitions?

Abolitionists called what congress did the "gag rule" because it silenced all slavery debates in Congress.

Who was Nat Turner

Nat was a slave that launched a rebellion along with 6 other slaves Virginia 1831

What is a fugitive?

A person who flees or tries to escape (for example, from slavery)

How did southerners view those who helped fugitive slaves?

They demanded that congress pass a "fugitive slave" law to help them recapture slaves who were trying to escape. They viewed them as criminals.

What was the Wilmot Proviso?

It said that involuntary service should never exist in any part of the territory that may be acquired from Mexico.

What did each side (Slave and Free) get out of the Compromise of 1850?

Free- california, No slave trade in Washington DCSlave- Utah and New Mexico territories opened to slavery.

Mexico territory

Southerners wanted all of the new claimed territory to be slaveNortherners wanted all of the new claimed territory to be freeTo compromise, the southerners proposed that the Missouri compromise line should extend to the pacific. Northerners rejected this. In 1849 California applied for admission to the Union as a free state, in HOR it passed, S rejected it saying it would upset the balance.

The compromise of 1850

The compromise of 1850California would be admitted to the Union as a free stateUtah and New Mexico would be opened to slaveryIt would also end the slave trade in Washington D.CIt called for a strong fugitive slave law Proposed by Henry clay While this proposition was debated the south threaded to peacefully leave the union The law was passed

Fugitive slave law

Fugitive slave law Both sides were unsatisfied North- didn't want to enforce the lawSouth- felt it didn't do enough to ensure the return of the slavesUnder this law...Any slave arrested for running away had little to no rights Any person who helped a slave escape or didn't help to return a slave could be imprisoned

Harriet Stowe

On a sunday morning in 1851 Stowe was in church when she had a vision of a slave (Uncle tom) and his master (Simon Legree) where Legree had just whipped uncle tom to death. Her story was published in abolitionists' news papers. Her readers found themselves crying and it made them realize how terrible slavery really is. In 1852 it was published as a novel. It turned millions of people against slavery

Kansas-Nebraska act

In 1854 Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to get a railroad built from Illinois to California Since Douglas wanted to build the railroad through the territories Congress wanted to make states, they debated if the new states should be slave states or free states.People thought that maybe people would make it a slave state, but that would go against the Missouri compromise.They decided that they should let the people living in the new states decide if they wanted it to be free or not.It was changed to letting Kansas and Nebraska choose if they wanted to be open to slavery or be free.

Bloodshed in Kansas

After the K-N A was passed people came to Kansas to either oppose or support slavery. Each side kept bringing in more and more people that supported their cause On May 21st, 1856 invaders from Missouri protested by attacking places in Kansas

Violence in Congress

In the summer of 1856 Charles Sumner accused Stephen Douglas of plotting to make kansas a slave stateHe later voiced his suspicion in a speech called "The Crime against Kansas." No one was really sure what he was trying to accomplish, but his speech was printed and given to the North.North- thought it was brave and nobleSouth- was offended

Beating in Congress

Preston Brooks a South Carolina rep beat Charles Sumner with a cane until it broke in half an Sumner was unconscious.Southerners applauded Brooks and even sent him new canes Northerners viewed this as another example of southern brutality.

who was Dred Scott

Dred Scott, a slave, was taken by his slave owner to Wisconsin territory (free).

what did Dred Scott do

He sues the executor of the will saying that he should be free because he had been taken to a free territory.He lost the state court, and he appealed to the supreme court..

Dred scott Case goes to the Supreme court.Questions the supreme court considered...

Does a slave count as a citizen who can sue in court?If he is not a citizen then nothing else really mattersThey found that slaves don't count as citizens, it doesn't matter if you're slave or free, if you're black you are not a citizen.Can congress prohibit slavery in the territories?If they don't have that authority to say if territories are free or not then it wouldn't matterThey found that everything was opened to slavery

Dred Scott decision 1857

Congress decided that Scott could not sue in a federal court because he was not a citizen. They said that no african american was a citizen so he couldn't sue. They said that even though he lived in Wisconsin, that did not make him free...The missouri compromise was unconstitutionalTanley's argument said.. Slaves are property, and property cannot be taken from people which was stated in the fifth amendment. Banning slavery in a territory is just like taking property away from slaveowners who want to bring their slaves into the territory.

How did people react to the Dred scott decision?

Southerners- they were happy because they thought that any issues on slavery had been resolvedNortherners- they were mad and surprised at the ruling.

Republican party

During the controversy on the KNA anti slavery settlers formed a new political party.They were united because they all agreed that "no man can own another man... that slavery must be prohibited in the territories... that all new states must be free states... that the rights of our colored citizen.. must be protected." In 1858 this party nominated Abe Lincoln to run for the senate

what were the Lincoln vs Douglas debates 1858

Series of 7 debates to be a part of the US senate seat from Illinois

What did douglas argue

Douglas argued..The Dred Scott decision had put the slavery issue aside.Also that people should decide if they wanted slavery.When Douglas was elected he didn't do very much to help.

what did Lincoln argue?

Lincoln argued... Slavery was moral, not a legal issue. The issue was that one side says slavery is wrong and one says it's right. Lincoln lost the election, but that didn't discourage him at all.

who was John Brownwhat was his raid

He was an extreme abolitionist Lincoln tried to stop slavery through politics, while Brown used violence.He planned to seize the federal arsenal (a place where weapons were stored) in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He wanted to use the weapons to give to slaves to rebel and destroy slavery forever.All of his men were captured or killed during this raid or rebellion.Brown was convicted of treason (betraying one's country; overthrowing the government) and sentenced to death.

what did john brown say while he was hung and how did the southerners react

On the day he was hung he said "I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood."Meaning... The crimes that this horrible land has committed, will never be solved/removed without a war.What he said frightened white southerners. If there was a rebellion, it would be the southerners the slaves would come after. Also, the north saw Brown as a hero which also scared white southerners.

Election of 1860 The presidential race showed how divided the country was.


who were each party voting for in the election of 1860

Republicans were with Lincoln, Democrats had split between Stephen Douglas (Northern democrats) and John Breckinridge (Southern democrats)It became even more confusing when A new group called the Constitutional Union party nominated John Bell.Lincoln won with 40% of the votesAll from the northHe wasn't on 10 southern state ballots

How did white southerners react to the election of 1860

White southerners became very anxious, because the south was clearly a minority and it had no power. They started to think that congress would try to abolish slavery. Talks of secession filled southern states.Senators tried to think of a compromise that would keep the nation together. They knew it would be hard but they didn't have very many choices


On December 20th, 1860 senate committee held it's first meeting.A reported asked Lincoln if he could compromise on slavery...He would not interfere with slavery in the southHe would support the fugitive slave lawBut he would not let slavery spread into the new territories. That same day, delegates in South Carolina voted to leave the union"The union is dissolved" was heard around the southSix more states followed South Carolina's lead

What did lincoln say right after he was elected

March 4th, 1861. Lincoln became president and he said that secession was both wrong and unconstitutional. He then appealed to the states that rebelled to return in peace.

What happened in south carolina

A month later citizens in South carolina opened a fire on fort sumter, a federal fort in Charleston harbor.The defenders of the fort took down the American flag and replaced it with a white surrender flag

What happened in the north when they heard about south carolina

In the north when people heard that rebels had fired on the American flag, they were furious (7)

what did people change their minds about...

Anyone who thought it was a bad idea to use force to save the union had changed their minds

how would the issue of slavery be solved

There would be no more compromise, the issue of slavery would now be decided by war.

U.S constitution

Ratified in 1787

Louisiana purchase

In 1803 America got land west of the Missisippi

Mexican-American war

America won, they got the soon to become, Utah and New Mexico territory and california.