Organizational Behavior Chapter 14 Leadership: Styles and Behaviors


defined as the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement. that direction can affect followers interpretation of events, the organization of their work activities, their commitment to key goals, their relationship with other followers, or their access to cooperation and support from other work units

leader-member exchange theory

describes how leader-member relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis, can explain why those differences exist. argues that new leader-member relationships are typically marked by a role taking phase.

role taking

during which a manager describes role expectations to an employee and the employee attempts to fulfill those expectations with his or her job behaviors. in this period the leader tries to get a feel for the talent and motivation levels of the employee.

role making

during which the employee's own expectations for the dyad get mixed in with those of the leader. role making process is process is marked by a free-flowing exchange in which the leader offers more opportunities and resources and the employee contributes more activities and effort

leader effectiveness

defined as the degree to which the leaders actions result in the achievements of the units goals, the continued commitment of the unit's employees, and the development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader-member dyads

leader emergence

process of becoming a leader in the first place.

leader decision making styles

delegative stylefacilitative styleconsultative style autocratic style

autocratic style

the leader makes decisions alone without asking for the opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit.

consultative style

the leader presents the problem to individual employees or a group of employees, asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision him or herself

facilitative style

the leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else's. leader is more of facilitator than decision making

delegative style

the leader gives an individual employee or a group of employees the responsibility for making the decision with some set of specified boundary conditions. leader plays no role in the deliberations unless asked, though though he or she may offer encouragement and provide necessary resources from behind the scenes.

time driven model of leadership

seven factors combine to make some decision making styles more effective 1.decision significance: is the decision significant to the success of the project or the organization2.importance of commitment: is it important that employees buy into the decision 3. leader expertise: does the leader have significant knowledge or expertise regarding the problem4. likelihood of commitment: how likely is it that employees will trust the leaders decision and commit to it5. shared objective: do employees share and support the same objectives, or do they have an agenda of their own6. employee expertise: do the employees have significant knowledge or expertise regarding the problem7. teamwork skills: do the employees have the ability to work together to solve the problem, or will they struggle with conflicts or inefficiencies

day to day behaviors performed by leaders

Initiating structure-1.initiation 2.organization 3.productionConsideration- 1.membership 2.integration 3.communication 4.recognition 5.representation


originating, facilitating, and sometimes resisting new ideas and practices


defining and structuring work, clarifying leader versus member roles, coordinating employee tasks


setting goals and providing incentives for the effort and productivity of employees


mixing with employees, stressing informal interactions, and exchanging personal services


encouraging a pleasant atmosphere, reducing conflict, promoting individual adjustments to the group


providing information to employees, seeking information from them, showing an awareness of matters that affect them


expressing approval or disapproval of the behaviors of employees


acting on behalf of the group, defending the group, and advancing the interests of the group

initiating structure

reflects the extent to which the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment. leaders high on initiating structure play a more active role in directing group activities and prioritize planning, scheduling, and trying new ideas. emphasize the importance of meeting deadlines, describe explicit standards of performance, ask employees to follow formalized procedures, and criticize poor work when necessary


reflects the extent to which leaders create job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings. leaders high on consideration create a climate of good rapport and strong, two way communication and exhibit a deep concern for the welfare of employees. personal favors for employees, take time to listen to their problems, and treat them as equals

life cycle theory of leadership (situational model of leadership)

argues that the optimal combination of initiating structure and consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit


defined as the degree to which employees have the ability and willingness to accomplish their specific tasks.


when the leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance. high initiating structure and low consideration


when the leader explains key issues and provides opportunities for clarification. high initiating structure and high consideration


when the leader shares ideas and tries to help the group conduct its affairs. low initiating structure and high consideration


when the leader turns responsibility for key behaviors over to employees. low initiating structure and low consideration

transformational leadership

involves inspiring followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new perspectives. heighten followers awareness of the importance of certain outcomes while increasing their confidence that those outcomes can be achieved.

laissez-faire leadership

avoidance of leadership all together. important actions are delayed, responsibility is ignored, and power and influence go unutilized. leader avoids getting involved when important issues arise

transactional leadership

occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the adequacy of the followers performance. three styles 1. passive management by exception 2. active management by exception 3. contingent reward

passive management by exception

the leader waits around for mistakes and errors, then takes corrective action as necessary

active management by exception

the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and again takes corrective action as necessary

contingent reward

represents a more active and effective brand of transactional leadership, in which the leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using promised or actual rewards in exchange for adequate performance

idealized influence

involves behaving in ways that earn the admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leader

inspirational motivation

involves behaving in ways that foster an enthusiasm for an commitment to a shared vision of the future. that vision is transmitted through a sort of meaning making process in which the negative features of the status quo are emphasized while highlighting the positive features of the potential future.

intellectual stimulation

involves behaving in ways that challenge followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions and reframing old situations in new ways

individualized consideration

involves behaving in ways that help followers achieve their potential through coaching, development, and mentoring. represents treating employees as unique individuals with specific needs, abilities, and aspirations that need to be tied into the unit's mission.

substitute for leadership model

suggests that certain characteristics of the situation can constrain the influence of the leader, making it more difficult for the leader to influence employee performance. two varieties of situational characteristics 1. substitutes 2. neutralizers


reduce the importance of the leader while simultaneously providing a direct benefit to employee performance


only reduce the importance of the leader; they themselves have no beneficial impact on performance.