Bedouin Tribes

Nomadic, tribal and polytheistic (supreme deity: Allah)Caravan trade routes


Tribal LeadersMalesCharismatic Strongest leader


Tribal councilCouncil of eldersOlder peopleGroup that made decisions


City in western ArabiaBirthplace of the Prophet Muhammad Ritual center of the Islamic religion.A lot of corruptionPolytheism


God in the Islamic religion


A black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine


The prophet and founder of IslamBorn in 570 to the Quaryish TribeMother died at age 6Adopted by uncle who was the richest man in Mecca Respected / Honest caravan manager


First wife of muhammad and first to convert to Islam.WealthyOwned her own caravanHad children from previous marriagesAsked Muhammed to marry her

Cave of Hira

Where Mohammad first received revelations from Gabriel , beginning in 610.


The holy book of Islam

Allah's Revelations

Adam AbrahamJesusNoah MosesMuhammed


Belief in one God- all powerful and merciful- honesty- faithfulness- Charity- Final judgement


Submission to the will of Allah (God)


Second book; kind of like the "law" book of Islam

Five Pillars of Islam

Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage


the exile of Muhammad and his followers to Medina in 622, which became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam

Exile in Medina

- Muhammed took his family to be protected by a Christian leader- Start of the lunar Calendar

Persecution and strife

Muhammeds business was destroyed and he was kicked out of the community

Medina communities



- Islamic community- Muhammad spread the word of islam to these communities


- 1st mosque- where Muhammed and his family lived - where he does his day to day business and settles problems

Mecca vs Muslims

- The battle of the well- the battle of the plain- the battle of the trench

The battle of the well

Muhammed Successful in taking the well

The battle of the plain

Could be seen as a loss but also as a "push" towards success

The Battle of the Trench

When Muhammed once and for all beat the people of Mecca

Treaty freeing people of rival alliances

People allowed to come to Mecca without consequence

Muhammed's message

- Apprehensive to take it to Medina- Once he started preaching he was ridiculed and there were attempted assassinations

Muhammed's Apostles

- Abu Bakr- Umar- Uthman- Ali- Muawiya

Abu Bakr

- First caliph after death of Muhammad- Very first convert outside of Muhammed's family- "Successor of the Messenger of God"- Creates Islamic Empire


holy war


- 2nd caliph after Muhammad's death- Hated Muhammed originally- Muhammad married one of his daughters- Conquers Jeruselum, Syria, Persia- claims western/ Wailing wall as holy sight for Judaism

Ibn Sina

Writer of the cannon of medicine


A Muslim place of worship


The term for all Muslims as a community.


- third caliph- sets up family dynasty- created tension because outsiders couldn't become caliph


- Fourth caliph- Islamic civil war breaks out (firman)


civil war within the empire of Islam


- fifth caliph- establishes the Umayyad dynasty

Umayyad Dynasty

The first great Muslim dynasty


- Led an unsuccessful rebellion against the Umayyad dynasty- murdered violently at the battle of Karbala- Leads to split of Islam ( Sunni & Shia)


Majority of modern day Muslims; believe the best qualified person should be caliph


Believes that caliph should be blood descendants of Muhammad


The most important Shia religious holiday, commemorating the death of Hussein, the grandson of the prophet Muhammad

Abbasid Dynasty

- Overthrows the Umayyad - Encourage marriage from both sides- allows all Muslims to hold office- moves political capital from Medina to Baghdad


The intellectual capital of the world


New caliph; patron of the arts and learning

Seljuk Turks

- Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliphs from mid-11th century- Capture Baghdad- Replace caliph with sultan