A sentence that is capable of being true or false (it has a truth-value)
When you make a statement, what are you doing?
You are asserting that something is (or isn't) the case
This is the point the arguer is trying to prove through their argument
a set of statements which are linked together in a way that attempts to prove the truth of the conclusion.
This is an argument that has a good structure, it guarantees a true conclusion if the premises are true.
This is an argument that is badly structured and might give you a false conclusion, even if all the premises are true.
this is an argument that has a valid structure AND true premises
this is an argument that has is either invalid, or contains false premises (or both)