Enlightenment & Scientific revolution

John Locke

English philosopher who argued that people have natural rights, he came up with "Life, Liberty, and property". ( natural rights of all men )


Rooms In the eighteenth century where, writers, artists, aristocrats, government officials, and wealthy middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas of the philosophes.


He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church. He believed that everyone had the right to speak their ideas and to rely on themselves to find joy. (Censorship)

Cesare Beccaria

Author of Of Crime and Punishment. He attacked both torture and capital punishment. He believed criminal justice should ensure speedy trial and sure punishment which was intended to deter further crime. Law was to secure the greatest good for the greatest number of human beings

Thomas Hobbes

believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority and was one of the the first to believe in the social contract

Charles-Louis Montesquieu

He agreed that the government should be divided to limit gov power. (Separation of powers)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Social Contract" he explained an ideal society where each community member would vote on issues and majority would become one law.

Mary Wollstonecraft

British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women.

Andreas Vesalius

Flemish scientist who pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body and its systems.

Robert Hooke

Discovered cells

Nicolas Copernicus

(1473-1543) concluded that the sun is the center of our solar system. Heliocentric Theory or Copernicus Theory. When he was alive he was scared to share his ideas and get in trouble

Francis Bacon

developed the scientific method

Rene Descartes

He added that truth has to be reached through reason instead of blind faith. (Answers of life)

Issac Newton

mathematician, made gravity laws and the laws of motion (the universe)

Robert Boyle

Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements. (Chemistry)

Joseph Priestly

discovered oxygen (chemistry)

Antoine and Marie Lavoisier

discovered nature of combustion (chemistry)

Johnannes Kepler

German astronomer and mathematicain that used models and observation to test Copernicus theory (the sun is the center of the solar system)


He was the first person to use a telescope to observe objects in space.