chapter 16

As Time passed, the _____ developed into a huge agricultural Factory pouring out a lot of fluffy fiber. _____ Drew Planters to the bottom lands of the Gulf States. As long as the ____ was vigorous the yield was Bountiful and rewards were high. Caught up in an economic spiral the Planters bought more _____ to grow more cotton so as to buy still more slaves in land. The _____ reaped a large part of the profits from the cotton trade. They would load cotton at Southern ports, transport them to ____, sell their cargo four pounds and buy _____ for sale in the United States. To a large degree the prosperity of North and South rested on the backs of ____. So did the Young's Nations growing well. Cotton accounted for half of the value of _____ after 1840, an expert earnings provided much of the capital that caused _____. The American South produce _____ supplied cotton. _____ was then the leading industrial power. It's Most important manufacturer was _____. About ____ of its precious Supply fiber came from the American south. Southern leaders were aware that Britain was tied to them by cotton threads in this dependence gave them a _____. In their eyes cotton was King, the gin was his throne, and slaves were his vassals. If War would ever break between North and South northern warships would cut off the _____. Fiber-famished British factories _____ and starving mobs would forced to London government to ____ and South Would Triumph. Before the Civil War, The South was in some respects not as much a democracy as an ____, governed by the few by a planter aristocracy. In 1850 only about 2,000 families owned more than 100 slaves and this select group provided the _____ of the section and Nation. The planter Aristocrats enjoyed a huge share of the South Wells. They can educate their children in the _____. Their money provided the ____ for study, reflection, and statecraft. They felt a keen sense of obligation to serve the public. But even in its best light dominance by favored aristocracy was _____. It widen the _______. It hampered _______ because Rich Planters could send their children to private institutions. A safe author of The Elite Southerners was Sir ____ whose Manors and castles helped them idealize a _____. Southern aristocrats strove to perpetuate a type of _____ that had died out in Europe and was rapidly dying out. The _____ also shaped the lives of Southern woman. The Mistress of a great Plantation commanded a sizable _____ was mostly female slaves. She gave daily orders to Cooks, maids, and body servants. Relationships between ______ branched from affectionate to atrocious even the bonds of Womanhood. No slave-holding woman believed in _____ and relatively few protested when the ________. Unhappily, the tradition concealed much That was worrisome. Plantation agriculture was wasteful because King Cotton _____. Quick profits led to _____ of land which causes heavy leakage of population to _____. The economic structure of the South became ______. As the land wore thin, many small farmers _____ to more prosperous neighbors and went north or west. The big got bigger and the small smaller. When the Civil War erupted a large percentage of southern farms had passed in the hands of families that had originally clear them. Another cancer in the South was a ____ of the plantation system. The Temptations to ______ in land and slaves caused many Planters to plunge beyond their debts. Although the enslaved blacks could be fed for as little as $0.10, there are other expenses. The slaves represented a heavy investment of capital and they might deliberately ______. The entire slave quarter may be wiped out by ___ or even by lightning. Dominance by King Cotton likewise led to a dangerous dependence on a ____ whose price level was at the mercy of world conditions. The whole system discouraged healthy _____ of Agriculture and Manufacturing. Southern planters resented watching _____ at their expense. They were pained by the heavy _____ and interest to Northern Middlemen and shippers. Sons and Daughters of the south support the fact that when born they were wrapped and clothes and spent the rest of their lives in _____. The cotton Kingdom also repelled ______ which added richly to the Manpower and mouth of the North. German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by the _____, high cost of _____ and European ignorance of cotton growing. The diverting of non-British immigration to the North caused the white South to become the _____ of the nation. Only handful of Southern whites lived in ____. Below 2000 families who owned many slaves were the ______. They were about 350,000 families. Over ____ of the families on fewer than ten slaves each. All told, only about one-fourth of white southerners _______. The smaller slave owners did not own a majority of the slaves but they made up a _____. These lesser Masters were typically _____. With the Striking exception that their households contain to slavery to the style of their lives probably resembled that of a small Farmer in the north more than the southern planter aristocracy. They lived on farm houses and ____. Beneath the slave owners of the population pyramid was a great body of whites who _____. By 1860 their numbers went 6 million, _____ of all Southern whites. The Riches of cotton Kingdom were distant dream. They participated in the market economy ____. As Farmers they raised _____, and lived an isolated life. Some of the least prosperous nonslaveholding whites were scorned _____. All of these whites without slaves had no direct economic stake in the preservation of slavery yet they were the ______. They had hope of ____ and parlaying their Holdings into riches, all in accordance with the American dream of _____. They also took Fierce pride in their _____ which would be watered down if the enslave blacks were freed. Many of the poor whites were hardly better off economically than the slaves. But even the most wretched could take conference from the knowledge that they ______. The logic of Economics join with the logic of racism. In a special category among white Southerners were the ____, marooned in The Valleys of Appalachian mountain range. Civilization passed them by. They were kind of losing ancestry for some of them _____. As independent small farmers, distanced from the heart of the cotton Kingdom, these had little in common with the whites of the Flatlands. Many of them _____. When the war came the mountain whites constituted an important peninsula of unionism in the South. They ultimately played a significant role in _____.

cotton Kingdom; Quick profits; soil; slaves and land; northern shippers; England; manufactured goods; slaves; All American exports; economic growth; more than half of the entire world; Britain; cotton cloth; 75%; sense of power; outflow of cotton; close their Gates; break the blockade; oligarchy; political and social leadership; finest schools; leisure; undemocratic; gap between rich and poor; tax-supported public education; Walter Scott; feudal society; medievalism; plantation system; household staff; mistress and slaves; abolition; husbands and children of their slaves were sold; ruined The Good Earth; excessive cultivation; West and Northwest; monopolistic; sold their holdings; financial instability; overspeculate; injure themselves or run away; disease; one-crop economy; diversification; the North grow fat; outward flow of commissions; servitude to Manufacturing; large-scale European migration; competition the slave labor; fertile land; most Anglo-Saxon section; mansions; less wealthy slave owners; two-thirds; owned slaves or belonged to a slave-owning family; majority of the people; small farmers; sweated besides their slaves; owned no Slaves; three-quarters; scarcely; corn and Hogs, not cotton; even by slaves; biggest defenders of the slave system; buying a slave or two; upward social Mobility; racial superiority; outrank someone in status, the slaves; mountain whites; retained forms and habits that died out of Britain; hated the Planters and their gangs of blacks; crippling the Confederacy

Precarious in the extreme was the standing of the South's ____. They numbered about 250,000. In the upper South there free black population Trace its Origins to a wave of emancipation inspired by ____. In the deeper South, many free blacks were ____, children of white Planters and black mistress. Throughout the South were some free blacks who ____ with earnings from labor after hours. Many free blacks owned property. The free blacks of the South were kind of third race. They were prohibited from ____ and Forbidden from ____. They were always vulnerable to being hijacked back into slavery by slave Traders. As free men and women they were walking examples of what might be achieved by ____ and were detested by Defenders of the slave system. Free blacks weren't popular in the North. Several States ____, most denied them the right to ___ and some barred blacks from ____. Northern blacks were especially hated by the _____ who come they competed for menial jobs. Much of the agitation in the north against the spread of slavery into the new territories grew out of racial Prejudice, not idealism. Anti-black feeling was frequently stronger in the ____. The gifted and eloquent former slave ____, an abolitionist, was beaten. It was observed that white Southerners who were often helped by black nurses ______. The White northener often professed to ______. In society's basement in the South were nearly 4 million slaves. The numbers could rebuild since the dawn of the century, as the booming cotton economy created _____. Legal importation of slaves into America ended in ____ when Congress outlawed slave Imports. Britain had abolished the slave trade in 1807. In the decades thereafter the Royal Navy's _____ took these hundreds of slave ships and free thousands of captives. Yet despite the effort as many is 3 million a slave. Africans were shipped to Brazil and West Indies. In the United States the price of slaves were so high in the years before Civil War that thousands of blacks were _____ despite the death penalty. Although several slave Traders were captured Southern juries repeatedly ____. Ironically the suppression of international safetrade Fostered the growth of vigorous _____ as a priest self States like Virginia became major sources of supply for the booming cotton economy. Yet the increase in the slave population in the United States came not from Imports but from _____. The natural reproduction of enslaved African Americans distinguish North American slavery From Slavery in more new world society and implied much about the terror of slavery and conditions of family life under slavery in the US. Above all the Planters regarded their slaves as ____ in which they had sunk nearly two billion dollars into their Capital. Slaves were ______ and as such they were cared for as any asset is scared by a capitalist. They were sometimes spare _____. If an Act was going to be broken the master preferred it to be a living wage earning _____. Slavery was more profitable for _____ though it hobbled economic development of the region as a whole. The profits from the cotton boom sucked every more slaves _____. Breeding slaves in the way that cattle are bred was not encouraged. But thousands of blacks from the soil-exhausted slave states of the Old South toiled as field-gang laborers on the cotton frontier. Woman Who _____ were prized and some of these famous females were _____ when they had produced 10. _____ were brutal sites. The open selling of human flesh underhammer was among the most revolting aspects of slavery. On The Auction Block ____ with frequency usually for economic reasons such as bankruptcy or division of property among heirs. The sundering of family was slavery's greatest psychological horror. Abolitionist to cried the practice.

free blacks; idealism of revolution; mulattos; purchase their freedom; working in certain occupations; testifying against whites in court; emancipation; forbade entrance; vote; public schools; Irish immigrants; north than in the South; Frederick Douglass; like the black as individual but despised the race; like the race but disliked individual blacks; demand for slave labor; 1808; West Africa Squadron; smuggled into the South; acquitted; national slave trade; natural reproduction; investments; primary form of wealth; dangerous work; Irish labor; great Planters; from the upper to Lower South; Bore thirteen or fourteen babies; promised their freedom; Slave auctions; families were separated;

White Southerners romanticized about the ____. Conditions vary greatly from ____ from large Plantation too small farm, from ____. Everywhere slavery meant ____, ignorance, and depression. The slave toiled from dawn to dusk under watchful eyes and ready whip from white overseer. They had no _____ other than minimal protection from murder or unusually cruel punishment. Some states offered further protections such as Banning the sale of a child under age of 10. But all laws were _____, as slaves were forbidden to testify in court. Floggings were common, for the whip was a substitute for the _____. Strong-willed slaves were sometimes sent to ____, whose technique consisted mostly of lavish laying on the Lash. Savage beatings made laborers sad. They are to be sure sadistic monsters in populations, and the planter class contained its share. But the typical planter had too much of _____ riding on the backs of slaves to beat them bloody on a regular basis. By 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the ____ of Deep South that stretch from South Carolina and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. This was the region of the Southern frontier into which sea explosively growing cotton Kingdom had burst of a few short decades. Life was often rough and raw and in general a lot of the slave was harder here than the more settled areas of the old South. A majority of blacks lived on ____ that herbered communities of 20 or more slaves. In some counties of the Deep South, blacks accounted for ____ of the population. There the family lives of slaves tended to be relatively stable and the distinctive _____ developed. Separations of family were evidently more common on ____ and in the ____. With impressive resilience, blacks managed to sustain ____ in slavery and most slaves grew in stable two-parent households. Continuity of family identity across generations with evidence in the widespread practice of naming children for ____. African Americans also display their African cultural Roots when they avoided marriage between first cousins. African roots is also visible in the slaves' _____. Though heavily Christian Eyes by _______, blacks in slavery molded their own distinctive religious forms from a mixture of Christian and African elements. They emphasized those aspects of the Christian heritage that seemed most pertinent to their own situation. African practices also persisted in the _____, in which the congregation punctuated The Minister's remarks with acids, and adaptation of the give-and-take between collar and dancer and the African ringshout dances. Slavery was intolerably degrading to its victims. They were deprived of the dignity and sense of responsibility that came from _______. They were denied an education because reading brought ____ and ideas brought discontent. Many states passed laws _____ and perhaps nine-tenths of adult slaves at the beginning of the Civil War were totally illiterate. For all slaves, the American dream of bettering one's slot with study and hard work was cruel and empty mockery. Not surprisingly, victims of slavery devised countless ways to throw send an excuse. When workers are not voluntarily hired or compensated they can hardly be expected to _____. Accordingly, slaves often _____ to the barest minimum that would spread on the leash, fostering the black laziness in the minds of the whites. Thiefs stole food from the big house and stole other Goods that have been produced or purchased by their labor. They _____, stopping the work routine all together until repairs were accomplished. Occasionally they even ______. The slaves also universally pin for Freedom. Many took took heels as runaways, frequently in search of a ______. Others rebelled unsuccessfully. In 1800 an armed Insurrection led by a slave named Gabriel in Virginia was foiled by informers and its leaders were heading to. Denmark Vesey let another rebellion in South Carolina. Also betrayed by informers they were publicly strong. In 1831 _____, led an uprising that slaughtered 60 Virginians. Reprisals were swift and bloody and ______ was soon extinguished. An especially dramatic episode involve the enslaved Africans who rebelled among the Spanish slave ship ____ in 1839. They seized command of the vessel off the coast of Cuba and attempted to _____ but were driven ashore on Long Island. After two years of imprisonment and trials, President John Quincy Adams secure their freedom in a moving argument. The dark taint on slavery also left its mark on ____. It Foster the brutality of the Whip and The Branding Iron. White Southerners increasingly lived in a state of imagined siege, surrounded by ______, inflamed by abolitionist propaganda from the north. Their Fears bolstered an intoxicating theory of _____ and turn this turned the South into a reactionary backwater in an era of progress, one of the least Fashions of slavery in the Western Wilds. Defenders of slavery were forced to _____ along with their victims. Inhumanity of slavery gradually cause _____ to sprout. Abolitionist sentiment first appeared at time of the _____, especially among Quakers. Because of the _____, some of the earliest abolitionist efforts focused on transporting the blacks bodily back to Africa. The _____ was founded for this purpose and in 1822 the _____ was established for former slaves. Its capital, Monrovia, was named after president Monroe. Many blacks were _____ but most blacks had not wanted to be transported back after having become ______. By 1860 virtually all Southern slaves were no longer Africans, but native-born ____ with their own distinctive history and culture. From the 1830s the Abolitionist Movement took on ______, Mountain to the proportions of a crusade. American abolitionists to carton 1833 when their British counterparts Unchained slaves. The ______ inflamed the hearts of many American abolitionists against the sin of slavery. Prominent among them was _____ weld who had been evangelized by Charles G Finney. Weld appealed with special power and directness to his rural audiences of _____. Spiritually inspired by Finney, Weld was aided by two wealthy New York Merchants, the brothers Arthur and Lewis Tappan In 1832 they paid his way to Lancey logical Seminary. ____ along with several other students for organizing an 18-day debate on slavery, Weld and his Rebels fanned out across the old Northwest preaching anti-slavery gospel. Its compelling argument made among the most effective abolitionist tracks.

happy life of their slaves; region to region; Master to master; hard work; civil or political rights; difficult to enforce; wage incentive system; Breakers; his own Prosperity; black belt; larger plantations; more than 75%; African-American slave culture; smaller plantations; upper south; family life; grandparents; religious practices; the Evangelist in the Second Great Awakening; responsorial style of preaching; Independence and right to make choices; ideas; forbidding their instruction; work with fervor; slowed their pace of Labor; sabotaged expensive equipment; poison their masters food; separated family member; Nat Turner; Nat Turner's rebellion; Amistad; sail back to Africa; whites; potentially rebellious blacks; biological racial superiority; degrade themselves; anti-slavery societies; Revolution; widespread loathing of blacks; American colonization Society; Republic of Liberia; transported back; partially Americanized; African Americans; new energy and momentum; religious spirit of the Second Great Awakening; Theodore Dwight; untutored farmers; Expelled;

On 1831, a shattering abolitionist blast came from _____. A spiritual child of the Second Great Awakening, he published in Boston the first issue of his anti-slavery newspaper, _____. He proclaimed in tones that under no circumstances would he tolerate the poisonous weed of slavery. Other dedicated abolitionists rally to Garrison standards and in 1833 they founded the _____. Prominent among them was Wendell Phillips. He would eat no cane sugar and wore no cotton cloth since both were produced by Southern slaves. Black abolitionists disguise themselves as living monuments to the cause of African-American Freedom. The ranks included David Walker, whose writing advocate in the bloody onto a Supremacy. Also noteworthy were ____, black women in New York who fought for _____, and Martin Delany a black leader to take seriously the notion of Mastery colonization of Africa. The greatest of the black abolitionist was ______. Escaping from slavery in 1838 at the age of 21 he was discovered by abolitionists when he gave a speech at the anti-slavery meeting in Massachusetts. He published his classic autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. It depicted his remarkable Origins and his struggle to learn to read and write. Garrison appeared to be more interested in _____ than the substance of slavery evil itself. He demanded that The Virtuous North secede from the wicked South but he did not explain how the creation of an independent slave Republic would bring an end to the crime of slavery. Douglas increasingly looks to ______ to end the blight of slavery. These political abolitionists backed the liberty party 1840, the _____ in 1848 and eventually the Republican Party in the 1850s. In the end, abolitionists follow the logic of their beliefs and supported a ____ as the price of emancipation. High-minded and courageous, the abolitionists were men and women of Goodwill in various colors who faced a cruel Twist many have had to trust upon themselves, is it worth it to _____? Anti-slavery sentiment was not unknown in the ____. In the 1820s anti-slavery societies were more numerous south of the _____. But after 1830 the voice of _____ was silenced. And the last cap of Southern questions of slavery the original legislated debated eventually defeated various emancipation proposals. The debate marked a turning point. Thereafter all the slaves tightened their slave codes and move to ______. Nat Turner's Rebellion sent a wave of Hysteria sleeping over the cotton fields and Planters and growing numbers recollected the ______. The ______ of 1832 further implanted haunting fears in white southern minds, conjuring up nightmares of black incendiaries and abolitionist devils. ____ now greeted rational efforts to discuss the slavery problem in the south. Pro-slavery whites responded by launching a massive defense of slavery as a positive good. In doing so they forgot their own sections' previous doubts about the ____. Slavery was supported by the institution of the ___ and the wisdom of ____. It was good for the Africans, who were lifted from the _____ and clothed with the _____. Slave masters strongly encouraged religion and slave quarters. White apologists also claimed that Master-Slave relationships ____. Southern whites were quick to contrast happy lot of their servants with that of the _______, including women and children. The blacks mostly toiled in _____, not in dark and stuffy factories. They did not have to worry about slack times or ____, as did the laborers of the North. Provided with a jail-like form of Social Security, they were cared for in sickness andold age, unlike northern workers, who were set _____. These curious pro-slavery arguments only ______. The southerners reacted defensively to the pressure of their own fears and brisled before the merciless nagging of Northern abolitionists. Increasingly the white stuff turned in upon itself in grew intolerant of any embarrassing questions about the status of slavery. Regrettably, also, the controversy over Free People ______ in the entire country. Piles of petitions poured and upon congress with the anti-slavery reformers and in 1836 sensitive Southerners drove through the house the so-called _____. It required all such anti-slavery appeals to be tabled without debate. This attack on the right of petition aroused John Quincy Adams who wanted its repeal. Southern whites likewise resented the _____. Even if blacks cannot read they could interpret the drawings. The Washington government in 1835 ordered Southern postmasters to _____ and called on Southern State officials to rest Federal postmasters who did not comply. Such was freedom of the press guaranteed by Constitution.

William Lloyd Garrison; The Liberator; American anti-slavery Society; Sojourner Truth; black emancipation and women's rights; Frederick Douglass; his own righteousness; politics; Free-Soil Party; costly war; emancipate slavery at the cost of War; South End; Mason-Dixon line; white southern abolitionism; prohibit emancipation of any kind; massive slave revolt that had erupted in Haiti; nullification crisis; Jails and whippings; morality of slavery; Bible; Aristotle; barbarism of the jungle; blessings of Christian civilization; resemble those of a family; overworked Northern wage slaves; fresh air and sunlight; unemployment; adrift when they had outlived their usefulness; widen the chasm between south and north; endangered free speech; gag resolution; flooding of their mails with incendiary abolitionist literature; destroy abolitionist material

Abolitionists were for a long time ____ in many parts of the north. Northeners have been brought up to ____ in regard the clauses slavery as a ___. The ideal of ____, hammered by the eloquence of Daniel Webster, had taken deep root, and Garrison's wild talk of ____ grated harshly In Northern ears. The Northeners also had heavy ____ in this house. By the late 1850s Southern Planters owed Northern bankers and other creditors 300 million dollars and _____ should the Union break. New England textile knows were ____ raised by the slaves and a disrupted labor system might cut off the vital Supply and bring ____. The union during these critical years was partly bound together with ____, Tied by the Lords of the Loom in collaboration with the cell followers of the Lash. It was not surprising that a strong hostility develop in the north against radical anti slavery abolitionists. Repeated tongue lashings by abolitionist provoked outbursts in the North. So unpopular were anti-slavery zealots but ambitious politicians usually avoided the taint of abolition like the plague. Yet by the 1850s the abolitionists outcry had me a ____. Many citizens had come to see the South as the land of fun free and home of a hateful institution here. Few northerners were prepared to ____, but a growing number, including Lincoln, opposed _____. People of this stamp, commonly called "_____,'' swelled their ranks as the Civil War approached

unpopular; Revere the constitution; bargain; Union; secession; economic stake; much of this immense sum would be lost; fed with cotton; unemployment; cotton threads; deep dent in northern mind; abolish slavery out-right; extending it to the western territories; free-soilers