Ulrich Zwingli

He and Luther split over the meaning of the Eucharist (body of Christ in communion). The Colloquy of Marburg was unable to overcome the rift.

Conventicle Act

In England Elizabeth passed this to use against radical Congregationalists and Catholics recusants who resisted the 39 Articles. It suppressed religious non-conformity.

G.R. Elton

The historian who explains that it was the will of the secular ruler that determined whether a state went Protestant or remained Catholic. In the final analysis the secular ruler made the decision about the religion of the states.

John C. Olin

He was the historian who explained how the Catholic Reformation had two phases one that happened before Luther's protest and then the official Church response after the Protestant Reformation had taken root.

Cardinal Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros

He reformed the Spanish Church during the 1400's. His actions created a situation such that Protestantism never had a chance in Spain. He was not nice to Jews and Moors.

Council of Trent

The Church Council that met on and off between 1545 and 1563 to make reforms of the Catholic Church. It had three aspects, restatement of church doctrine, reform of church practices, and counter-attack against Protestantism.


The militant religious order that was the the "army of Christ" in the Catholic Reformation. It was founded by Ignatius Loyola and won back several regions to the Catholic Church. They were also educators who founded schools for boys all over Europe. They were loyal to Pope.


A new reforming Catholic religious order that wanted a return to the "original ascetic and charitable ideals of St. Francis.

Martin Bucer

He was an important Calvinist leader who went to England during the reign of Edward VI and helped Archbishop Cranmer write up the 42 Articles that made England more "Protestant.

Peter Paul Reubens

He was the baroque artist who painted the picture of St. Ignatius of Loyola casting out demons. Baroque was the artistic style favored by the Counter-Reformation Catholic Church.

The Inquisition

A court used by the Catholic Church as a key weapon in the Catholic Counter-Reformation. It used to root out heresy. An early example was in Spain under Tomas de Torquemada. In 1542 Pope Paul III started a Roman version under the direction of Cardinal Giampietro Caraffa.

Ignatius Loyola

He was the founder of the Society of Jesus that was a key part of the Catholic Reformation. He was a leader in the Catholic counter-attack against Protestantism. He demanded complete obedience to the Church. He is considered a saint by the Catholic Church.

Act of Supremacy

Parliament passes this which made Henry VIII the head of the English Church which is called the Anglican Church. Another one was also passed for Elizabeth I.

The Ursalines

This was a religious order of nuns founded by St. Angela Merici. It was an order of teaching nuns who set up schools for girls throughout Europe. In some ways they were modeled on the Jesuits.


The selling of church offices. One of the corruptions that plagued the Catholic Church in the 1400's that was ended by the Catholic Reformation

39 Articles


39 Articles

Elizabeth I had this religious settlement drawn up as a compromise on religious matters. It created an "umbrella" type church which had an Episcopal structure of bishops, a Eucharistic service that looked a lot like Catholic mass, but a theology that definitely was protestant. Only Catholics and extreme Calvinists in England did not accept it.