Cold War

Containment

American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world

Marshall Plan

a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.

United Nations

International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.

summit meeting

conference between the highest-ranking officials of different nations

Nikita Khrushchev

A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.

John F. Kennedy

President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis

Bay of Pigs

An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.

Berlin Airlift

Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city

Berlin Wall

A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West

Cuban Missile Crisis

The 1962 confrontation between US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.

Hydrogen Bomb (H-Bomb)

New nuclear weapon even more destructive than the atomic bomb

Sputnik

First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

Sputnik II

The second artificial Earth satellite, launched by Moscow a month after the first; this one was considerably larger and carried a dog

U-2 Incident

A 1960 incident in which the Soviet military used a guided missile to shoot down an American U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory

ICBMs

Inter Continental Ballistic Missile. They have the power to shoot a missile from one country to another. This makes it easier to attack a country without getting to close to them.

Lee Harvey Oswald

On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. Oswald was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.

Iron Curtain

Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

hotline

a direct telephone connection between the US and Soviet Union leaders to communicate directly during a crisis

Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Agreement between the US, Soviet Union, and Great Britain to end the testing of nuclear bombs in the atmosphere or underwater