Ancient Greece Study Guide

Ancient Greece Geography

- Winters: mild and wet- Summers: warm and dry (leads to drought) - grapes and olives one of few plants that can survive drought- 75% covered by mountains (means difficult to farm) - Surrounded by seas - Culture: 1. Isolated - led to the formation of city-states - limited interaction and unity of Greece - created fierce rivalries 2. Sea became vital link - traded - skilled sailors

Two factors that contributed to the growth and prosperity of the Minoan civilization were

The Sea - food, trade, waterLand - fertile soil


an independent city with its own government and economic system (its own way of keeping order and making money)


a belief in many gods and goddesses

How were Greek gods and goddesses similar to humans?

they married, had children, lied, murdered, and acted a lot like humans

Mount Olympus

the highest mountain in Greece, where the ancient Greeks believed many of their gods and goddesses lived


god of the sky and ruler of the Olympian gods


Queen of the gods


Goddess of wisdom


Messenger of the gods


God of the sea


God of war


God of the underworld


Goddess of the hunt


God of the sun

Who counted as citizens in Ancient Greece?

free men, born in the city-state, owned land

What rights did citizens have in Ancient Greece?

- vote- hold office-own property- speak for themselves in court


A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility (KINGS AND QUEENS)


government where a person illegally gained power, but had the people's support


government with power to all citizens (not all were citizens); government practiced in Athens


government with power to a few wealthy and privileged; government practiced in Sparta

Olympic Games

Festival and athletic contests held at Olympia every 4 years in honor of Zeus in which all Greek city-states sent representatives. Only male athletes could participate

Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta?Had a direct democracy


Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta?Purpose of education was to produce good citizens


Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta?Women weren't considered citizens


Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta?Assembly was debated and voted on laws


Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta? Was well known for their strong navy


Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta? Boys attended school from the age of 7-18


Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta? From the age of 18--20, males served 2 years of military service


Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta? Females did not receive a formal education, instead they learned how to perform household duties. They were not citizens and had few political rights


Golden Age

A time in a culture of high achievement in democracy arts, drama, and literature, and science. Generally occurs in times of peace. Occurred under the rule of Pericles


a patron (supporter) of the arts and learning. Mastermind behind building of the Parthenon


temple for goddess Athena

Socratic Method

a way of teaching developed by Socrates that used a question-and-answer format to force students to defend their statements and explain their beliefs

Which city-state follows by this statement? Athens or Sparta? They tended to be poorer than other Greeks and did little with science and the arts, but their athletes usually won the Olympic Games



In the society of ancient Sparta, a slave bound to the land. Can never rise in status to become a citizen. Forced to fight in Spartan army during wars

True or False: Spartans make up the smallest portion of people living in Sparta


How long did Spartan men stay in the army?

from age 20 to 60 (40 years)

When were Spartan men expected to marry?

before age 30

True or False: Sparta looked down upon cities that relied on walls or protection


Female Spartans

- trained in gymnastics, wrestling, and boxing- married at age 19- could own property and express opinions (could NOT participate in government)- could become very wealthy

What kind of government did Sparta have?

Oligarchy; two hereditary kings (from 2 different ruling families) ruled jointly over the military. Served as priests of Zeus

Council of Elders

The 28 Spartans over the age of 60 that helped make laws

Five Ephors

Spartan men chosen by lot to serve for 1 year. Had power to VETO (forbid) legislation

Modern Day Olympics

- many sports/games such as gymnastics, triathlon, volleyball, cycling, winter sports, etc.- women participate- We have seasonal Olympics (summer every 4 years, winter every 2 years)- awarded gold, silver, and bronze medals- held in a different location every time

Ancient Greek Olympics

- a religious ceremony to honor Zeus- fewer sports than there are today (races, broad jump, discus throwing, boxing, chariot races, wrestling, and pentathlon)- women were not allowed to compete- were awarded olive branches- were only held in Olympia

What do the Ancient and Modern Olympics have in common?

- athletes from all over traveled to compete- share some of the same competitions, like foot racing and javelin throw)- held every 4 years


armed foot soldiers in Ancient Greece