World History Ch.5 Key Terms


civilization on the greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.

trojan war

AMycenaeans (Greeks) vs. Troy. Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen, wife of the Mycenaen's king. Greeks won when they tricked the Trojans with the Trojan Horse. The Iliad gives information about the Trojan War.


A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization


The highest virtue in Homeric society; the manliness, courage, and excellence that equipped a hero to acquire and defend honor


ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)


long narrative poems celebrating the deeds of legendary or traditional heroes


Son of Laertes and Anticleia, husband of Penelope and father of Telemachus. A cunning, shrewd and eloquent hero. Came up with the idea of the Trojan horse which led the Greeks to victory against Troy. "Man of many wiles".


a traditional story that deals with the supernatural, ancestors, or heroes


Greek city-state


a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs


government under a single ruler


a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility


form of government in which a few people have the power


formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)


A leader in ancient Greece who seized power by force rather than by inheriting it.


Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.

council of elders

The 28 Spartans over the age of 60 that helped make laws


Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa 7th century BC)


Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt


tyrant, built foundations for democracy, social welfare and grants of food, land reform, patriotism


An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped from Athenian democracy

persian wars

A series of wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire (5th century B.C.).


runner that carried messages to Sparta and Athens and died inside of the Athenian gates. modern marathons are imitations of his 20 mile run


son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C. defeated them


the Greeks sent about 7000 soldiers to gaurd the pass, for two days they held off the Persians but on the 2nd day, a traitor led the persians through a secret pass so they could attack from behind. Most of the Greeks retreated but 300 Spartan soldiers stayed and fought.

delian league

an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians

age of pericles

Pericles wanted to make Greece beautiful; age of beauty, focus on perfection; focus on the human form in perfection

direct democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

peloponnesian war

A war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta

classical art

the art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized


A serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character


Greek thinkers who believed the human mind could understand everything.


philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method


one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the GREATEST philosopher of western civilization. Plato explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.


A Greek Philosopher, taught Alexander the Great, started a famous school, studied with Plato

philip 2nd

Father of Alexander the Great and, king of Macedonians Conquered Greece - wanted to cnquer Persia, but killed

darius 3rd

Persian king defeated by Alexander


Battle where Alexander conquers Persia


ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe


Helenistic general, after alexander's death, received Asia Minor, kingdom divided between generals


the blending of Greek cultures with those of Persia, Egypt, and Central Asia following the conquests of Alexander the Great


a Greek dialect that flourished under the Roman Empire


City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization


correctly believed that the earth and other planets moved around the sun, but he failed to convince others


He is the father of geometry and wrote a book, Elements, explaining geometry that was used as a text book till the 1900


This man is considered the greatest thinker of his era, a great mathematician and physicist who explained the principle of the lever and other inventions.


the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno -- emphasized reason as a means of understanding the natural state of things, or logos, and as a means of freeing oneself from emotional distress


founder of Eupicureanism; aim of life is to seek pleasure and avoid pain

colossus of rhodes

Largest known Hellenistic statues, one of the wonders of the ancient world