Religion test 4

Sabbath

The most important and distinctive of all Jewish holidays. Gave the world the six-day workweek, with the seventh day reserved for worship and rest.

When does the Sabbath begin and end?

Begins on Friday at sundown and continues until sundown on Saturday.

What is Kiddush

Ceremonial family blessing and meal Friday night to welcome the Sabbath. The benediction over wine and bread , and the blessing of Sabbath candles by the women of the house

Synagogue

(Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation

Passover (Pesach)

A holiday which begins on the 15th of the Hebrew month of Nisan (March-April) and lasts for 8 days. It commemorates the deliverance of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt.

What is Seder?

The ceremonial dinner on the first two nights of Passover. Where lamb, unleavened bread, and bitter herbs are eaten as the family engages in rituals that recall Exodus

What is Exodus

A journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment

The feast of the weeks (Shavuot)

Occurs fifty days after Pesach (Passover), on the sixth and seventh days of Sivan (May-June). This holiday is called Pentecost in the New Testament. It started by celebrating the first grain harvest but later it was related to the Exodus event; the time when moses received the Ten Commandments on Mt. Sinai. Jewish people decorate their homes and synagogues with plants and flowers

New Year (Rosh Hashanah)

Celebrated on the 1st and 2nd days of the month of Tishre (September-October). Tradition says that these days were the first days of creation

How is Rosh Hashanah (New Year) celebrated

This season begins a period of penitence that cumulates in the next holiday, the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). It is celebrated by special prayers and by eating sweets, in the hope of a good year to come

The day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)

This is the holiest of all jewish holidays. It is celebrated on the 10th of Tishre and at the end of the period of Penitence, begun at Rosh Hashanah.

How is Yom Kippur celebrated

This day is traditionally celebrated an abstinence from work, food, and drink. The day is spent to in the synagogue, where prayers are offered for forgiveness of sins and the possibility of reconciliation and also the occasion for charity

The feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)

Comes 5 days after Yom Kippur, on the 15th of Tishre. Originally was a celebration of the autumn harvest. Like many holidays, Sukkot became attached to the Exodus experience and is now kept as a remembrance of the times when Israelites wandered in the Sinai wilderness and lived in makeshift tabernacles (sukkot) this festival is a joyous one

Feast of Dedication (Hannukkah)

Falls on the 25th of the month of Kislev (November-December). The holiday is NOT associated with the Exodus.

The story of Hannukkah

In 165 BCE, Judas Maccabeus retook the Temple from the Syrian Greeks and rededicated it. Only one small container of oil was available for lighting the temple lamp which symbolized the eternal presence of God. It should have lasted only one day. However, a miracle happened and the oil lasted for eight days until a messenger bearing more oil returned. In remembrance of that event, Jews light a candle each day, for eight days. It is thus a festival of lights as well as a festival of dedication. Hannukkah has been a minor holiday in Judaism until fairly recent times.

The feast of Lots (Purim)

Celebrated on the 14th of Adar (February-March) as a remembrance of Jewish victory over gentile foes and this also NOT associated with Exodus.

Story of Purim

The book of Esther says that Esther, who had become the Queen of Persia, was made aware of a plot to destroy her people. By boldly approaching the king and revealing this plot to him, Esther was able to save her people from a massacre and see her chief enemy hanged upon the gibbet he had prepared for Mordecai, the Jew he chiefly hated. She was able to initiate a strategy which allowed the Jews to protect themselves. Since "lots" were cast to determine the day when the Jews were to be destroyed, the festival is known as Purim (lots). On this day the scroll of Esther is read, gifts are exchanged, and a special meal is eaten. Generally it is a day of great joy and merrymaking.

The Son/Daughter of the commandment (Bar/Bat Mitzvah)

Not an annual festival, but an important occasion in the life of the community. When a jewish male reaches his 13th birthday he is considered a man.

Berith

The Jewish rite of circumcision performed on a male child on the eighth day of his life.

People of the covenant

Noachin, Abrahamic, Mosaic, and Davidic

Noachin:

Includes everyone; sign is the rainbow.

Abrahamic:

includes his clan/people; sign is circumcision.

Mosaic:

particular group who accepts covenant (Israel); sign is the Torah or Ark of the Covenant

Davidic:

Messianic, always someone from the family of David on the throne.

Credo: Shema'

(Deut. 6:5-6) "Hear, O Israel, the lord, our God, is one (god), and you should love the lord, your God, with all your heart, and all your might, and all your substance (soul).

Torah:

law (found in the Pentateuch), by 400 BCE.

Nevi'im

prophets (both former and latter), by 200 BCE.

Kethuvim:

writings (varied mix) by or at 70 CE.

3 books that almost did not make it into scripture:

The Greatest Song, Esther, and Koheleth

Torah: (Patriarchal religion)

1. Semi-nomadic.2."God(s) of the father" (shield of Abraham, mighty one of Jacob, fear of Isaac).3. Henotheistic.4. Three promises: a. land b. offspring c. blessing (greatness)5. Importance of Abraham, Hapiru in the Amarna letters.

Henotheistic

The belief and worship of one god while accepting the possible existence of other deities

Mosaic religion

Experience of Moses crucial, Includes the Egyptian captivity, Exodus, travel to Sinai, and covenant (law), Covenant parts, and treaty types

Apodictic (unconditional)

Absolutely certain, necessarily true, proved or demonstrated beyond a shadow of a doubt

Casuistic (conditional or "If-then")

of or relating to the use of ethical principles to resolve moral problems

Suzerainty

Between a lord and vassals

Parity

between equals

The Ten Words/Commandments:

I. Don't have other gods before me.II. Don't make graven imagesIII.Don't make the name of Yahweh worthless.IV. Don't forget the Sabbath day (remember it).V. Don't forget your parents (honor them). VI. Don't murder.VII. Don't steal. VIII. Don't commit adultery.IX. Don't give false testimonyX. Don't covet.

King

Is the representative of God. He is, according to certain psalms, considered to be the adopted son of god. Major problem: He begins to do what please him rather than what pleases god

Priests

They oversee the temple worship. problem: They begin to see themselves as privileged rather then servants of god

Sages

These are the councilors and teachers of the elite and the royalty. Problem: they can be rather cosmopolitan

Prophets

These are the messengers of god and the defenders of the elite and the guarantors of the covenant. Problem: Sometimes their messages conflicted

Prophet Amos:

reversals (holy war, punishment out of love, no sacrifices, plumbline).

Prophet Hosea:

married a "Ho," hesed or steadfast love.

Prophet Isaiah:

trust in the sustaining care of God, Messiah.

Prophet Micah:

counterpoint to Isaiah on Jerusalem (holds up country traditions--Bethlehem), true religion.

Prophet Jeremiah:

conquest (temple sermon) and hope (covenant on the heart not on stone), difficulty of being a prophet.

Prophet Ezekiel:

condemnation of syncretism (cabod leaves temple), hope (dry bones, heart of flesh), and plans for return. Father of Judaism

Prophet Deutero-Isaiah:

imminent return, monotheism

The Babylonian Exile

witnessed the birth of the synagogue where the Jews gather to read Torah and pray and the speeding up of the collection of the "oral law." A lot of creative activity: histories, epics, polemics.

What is Ezra called?

the father of Judaism because of his deep commitment to the law and Jewish holiness (separateness)

What does Nehemiah do?

helps rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and assures a safe environment.

Sadducees

Priestly group

Zealots

Violent, militaristic group

Essenes

Separatist, extremely rigorous group

Pharisees

interpreters of the law in the many communities. They were the only group to survive the Roman threat. Modern Judaism derives most directly from this group.

'Am HaAretz

The "people of the earth

Talmud

study," "knowledge" - the vast depository of the oral Torah, based on the Mishnah with extensive rabbinic commentary on each chapter; there are two versions, the Palestinian (completed about AD 450) and the Babylonian (completed about AD 600).

Karaite position on the torah:

claimed Hebrew Bible, not the Talmud, was authoritative.

Saadiah (father of medieval jewish philosophy) position on the torah:

agreed that Torah or Scripture was important but showed how Talmud flowed from Scripture.

Moses Maimonides (Rambam) position on Torah:

eloquently defended the Mishnah's place in Jewish life, courageously played the apologist for the Jewish faith.

Kabbala

A body of mystical teachings of rabbinical origin, often based on an esoteric interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures.

Jews of the Spain:

Sephardim (Mystical)

Jews of Poland:

Ashkenazim (Yiddish: 70% of Jews today)

Orthodox:

most literal. Reaction which claims that the law is true for all time and is the distinctive of Jewish life and so they keep the law very strictly.

Zionist:

in favor of the reestablishment of Israel (pre-1948).

Conservative:

not as strict. Reaction to this that the Halakah (law) is important even though some adjustments must be made for modern life and Hebrew is retained

Reform:

very liberal. Most liberal (Germany) which sees Judaism as a progression of ways to pay homage to God. The law is important but is not the only guide for the people and modern culture is the medium.

Reconstructionist:

advocate wider liberty in doctrine and "creative adjustment" to the conditions of modern life." (Noss and Noss). Grew out of the experience of a rabbi who saw that his daughters could love Torah and like the reform group; sees Judaism as changing and growing.

Halakah (structure)

Talmudic literature that deals with law and with the interpretation of the laws on the Hebrew Scriptures

Haggadah (Sense)

Jewish term for interpretations of Tanak that are devotional, not legal in character. Often they supplement the scriptural narrative with stories about principal characters

The first part to the Talmud

Mishnah

The second part to the Talmud

Gemara

The cycle of retribution:

Apostasy, punishment, repentance, deliverance

The original united monarchy (Kingship)

Saul, David, Solomon, and Rehoboam

Theocracy

a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.

Where and who was the North Kingdom

Israel, Jereboam

Where and who was the Southern Kingdom

Judah, Rehoboam

define Diaspora

Jews living outside of Israel

Define Sephardim

Jews of Spanish or Portuguese decent