Logical Fallacies

Post hoc (ergo propter hoc)

This fallacy is committed when it is concluded that one event causes another simply because the proposed cause occurred before the proposed effect.

ad hominem argument

You attacked your opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument.

tu quoque argument

This fallacy is committed when it is concluded that a person's claim is false because 1) it is inconsistent with something else a person has said or 2) what a person says is inconsistent with her actions.

hasty generalization

This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough.

sweeping generalization

If one takes a general rule, and applies it to a case to which, due to the specific features of the case, the rule does not apply, then one commits the sweeping generalization fallacy.

non sequitur

A conclusion or statement that does not logically follow from the previous argument or statement.

straw man

The Straw Man fallacy is committed when a person simply ignores a person's actual position and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of that position.

argumentum ad ignorantiam (argument to ignorance)

The fallacy that a proposition is true simply on the basis that it has not been proved false or that it is false simply because it has not been proved true.

argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to false authority)

The fallacy of appealing to the testimony of an authority outside his special field.

argumentum ad populum (argument or appeal to the public)

The fallacy of attempting to win popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the feeling and enthusiasms of the multitude.

bandwagon appeal

A fallacy in which a threat of rejection by one's peers (or peer pressure) is substituted for evidence in an "argument.

begging the question

a fallacy in which the premises include the claim that the conclusion is true or (directly or indirectly) assume that the conclusion is true.

circular reasoning

type of reasoning in which the proposition is supported by the premises, which is supported by the proposition, creating a circle in reasoning where no useful information is being shared.

red herring

A fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue.

slippery slope

A fallacy in which a person asserts that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question.

false analogy

A fallacy in which an argument is based on misleading, superficial, or implausible comparisons.

either/or fallacy (false dilemma)

A fallacy in which a person uses the following pattern of "reasoning.


The fallacy of equivocation is committed when a term is used in two or more different senses within a single argument.