Hdfs 3430 final

Bicultural identity

declaring oneself a combination of two cultures

Diffusion (Marcia)

he or she has not yet made (nor is attempting/willing to make) a commitment, no crisis either

Foreclosure (Marcia)

these individuals have not explored a range of options, no crisis but there is commitment

Moratorium (Marcia)

currently in a crisis, exploring various commitments, no commitment but there is a crisis

Achievement (Marcia)

gone through a identity crisis and has made a commitment

Individuality and connectedness

Individuality- (North America and Western Europe)
Connectedness- (Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe)

Pre conventional, conventional, and post conventional morality

level 1- pre conventional (no internalization)
level 2- conventional (intermediate internalization)
level 3- post conventional (full internalization)

Criticisms of Kohlberg's moral development theory

gender bias- only used male perspectives participants, theory downplays relationships and concern for others assessment of moral reasoning- there should be some other assessment methods besides moral dilemmas moral thought vs moral behavior- placing too m

What did Kohlberg base his theory on?

Based on Piaget
Presented stories with moral dilemmas, looked for trends in answers
Interest in how they reasoned (not right/wrong answers)
Piagetian approach (heteronomous to abstract)

Types of prosocial behavior

altruistic- behaviors for the benefit of others, public- when someone does something for another motive and be recognized for it, and anonymous- behaviors displayed without the knowledge of others

Does inductive reasoning work best with young, school age, or adolescents?

works best with adolescents because you have the ability to think about things from multiple perspectives

Today's college freshman vs college freshman 40 years ago on "being well of financially

college freshman now a days think it is a lot more important to be financially stable than college freshman 40 years ago

Nick's story

Changes of puberty
Time of firsts
Abstract thinking
Social comparison
Identity crisis
Personal fable, imaginary audience
Self-discrepancy, ruminative coping
Self-concept, self-esteem
Emotion (mood, barometr

Do emotions change in adolescence?

-from 5th to 9th grades, 50% decrease in report being very happy
-adolescents 5x more likely than parents to report very happy and 3x more likely to report very sad

Ethnic identity... Umana-Taylor

way you relate to your background culture and traditions

Religiousness vs spirituality

Religion, spirituality linked with positive outcomes for adolescents and emerging adulthood
religion shows more structure while spirituality is more like the questioning aspects we spoke about in class especially in regards to Erickson identity vs role co

Does religiousness increase or decrease from adolescence to age 20?

College freshman going to religious services and having a religious preference is declining. This is not only happening in adolescences but also in adults today

How does ERI change and influence?

Interaction between maturation and context
Discusses the process by which one arrives at self-identification choices

According to Umana-Taylor, how is ethnic environment related to ethnic development and relevance of ethnic racial identity?

-varies across individuals in same situation
-familial socialization
-settings way from families (etc. school, work)
-influenced by ethnic composition (exposure to diversity and increased relevance of ERI)

Centrality of race

extent to which a person considers race to be an important aspect of his or her self-concept

Is having positive ethnic identity a good thing?

Linked to positive attitudes to own and other ethnic groups

How are saliency, self-reflection, and encounters related to ethnic identity development

Saliency: extent to which one's ethnicity-race is relevant to one's self-concept in a particular situation
Self-reflection: serious thought about one's character, actions, and motives
Encounters: events trigger extreme consciousness raising

Jean Twenge on self-esteem and today's young people

Higher self-esteem may be leading to depression because people have these very high expectations

What might Twenge and Harter agree on?

help them achieve in one domain, blank sayings aren't helpful

What is narcissism/what kind of survey questions could measure it?

extreme selfishness, with a grandiose view of one's own talents and a craving for admiration, as characterizing a personality type
survey questions such as asking what one thinks of themselves
could measure number of times a day something is done (ex. loo

Pubertal change is related to emotions

they feel the emotions very strongly due to puberty and stress

Bem inventory

androgynous: more flexible, mentally healthy, undifferentiated least
gender-role classification

Bandura's concept of moral disengagement

people have little reason to feel any need to make amends for inhuman conduct if they disown personal agency for it
4 types- moral justification, displacing responsibility, disregarding injurious consequences, and blaming the victim

Moral justification

by looking at moral ends

Displacing responsibility

just following orders

Disregarding injurious consequences

ignore harmful effects

Blaming the victim

victim not viewed as human

Bem ratings on celebrities

Miley, Beyonce, Justin- all pretty similar in masculinity, but Beyonce had more feminism
large range between the two numbers. The scale is essential even numbered questions are added together and odd questions are added up. Scale of 1 to 5 ratings 1 being

Religious preference

In 2010- 75% attended religious services frequently/occasionally senior year
High in 1997- 85%
23% no religious preference, low in 1978- 8%
Adults are also following this trend of declining in preference

Findings from Bandura's 1996 study

Kids who were more aggressive scored higher on the MD scale

Moral education in schools

The hidden curriculum- sense of ethics built in
Character education- direct teaching moral literacy
Values clarification- help clarify what is important to them, worth working for, purpose

Early history views of adolescence

1500s- late 1800s people thought adolescents...
-were like adults
-industrialization, many left for cities

Age of Adolescence

-work laws > put into place for young people. Can no longer hire young kids for extreme amount of hours/labor
-Institutions > mandatory secondary school (jr. high and high school)
-1910 to 1930: # of 10-15 year olds working dropped 75%. High school gradua

Storm and Stress

-recapitulation of earlier experiences
-turbulent time, conflict, mood swings
-Biological basis "recapitulation" > As you grow up, you replicate all of human history through your life.

Hall's and Mead's perspective

Mead's perspective: -Need not be stressful, if given freedom and know adult roles.
-Adolescence represented no period of crisis generally
Hall's perspective: Adolescence is a turbulent time with conflict and mood swings

Stages of Adolescence

1.Early Adolescence
2.Middle Adolescence
3.Late Adolescence


Period of transition between childhood and adulthood that involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes. begins at 10-13 years and ends in late teens. no discrete events

Early Adolescence

most pubertal changes occur

Late adolescence

15-19 years old. identity, future, dating occur

Indicators of adulthood

feel like an adult at 18-25 years old. Accept responsibility for self, make independent decisions, financial independence

Adelson's generalization gap

-widespread generalizations about adolescents based on a limited, highly visible group of adolescents
-Not a generation gap but generalization gap
-Everyone is making generalizations about adolescents in the news
-people who aren't around adolescents a lo

Adolescence is a "time of firsts" Siegel

-might help explain some emotional disruption
-phenomenon of the "first time"--the teenagers first date, first job, first sexual experience. Since these "firsts"
are embued with an inordinate amount of emotional investment, they offer an alternative u

median age for marriage

median age for US is higher than traditional, non-industrialized countries

Difference between theory and hypothesis

-Theory: An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps explain and make predictions
-Hypothesis: specific assumptions and predictions can be tested

Psychoanalytic Theory

-Key features: needs that aren't being met, unconsciously
-Stress > early experiences, unconscious, needs
-behaviors come out from unconscious
-behavior reflects inner workings of mind

Sigmund feuds sexual stages: id, ego, superego

-Id is concerned with instant gratification of basic physical needs and urges. (unconscious)
-Ego is rational pragmatic part of our ego. (partly conscious and unconscious)
-Superego is concerned with social rules and morals. It develops as thechild learns

Anna Freuds perspective of psychoanalytic theory

-Anna Freud > defense mechanisms. She believes going through adolescence without turmoil is unnatural. Defense mechanisms- adolescent says something they don't really mean because they are mad or some emotion.

Erikson's psychosocial theory

It evolved from psychoanalytic:
-Less emphasis on sexual motivations
-more emphasis on social aspirations
-emphasis on entire life
1.trust vs. mistrust
2.autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
3.Initiative vs. Guilt
4.Industry vs. Inferiority
5.Identity vs.

Behavioral Theory

-key features: reinforcement, contingencies > whats contingent on their behavior
-observable behavior, environmental determinants
-Behavior is learned, changes according to experience
-operant conditioning: changing behavior through reinforcement

Social Cognitive Theory

-key features: observation, expectations
-We learn by our observations and/or expectations (understand behavior by knowing what people see or expect)

Ecological Contextual Theory

-key features: system, context
-understand behaviors by studying the system it occurs in

Transition into adulthood is not a discrete event-Arnett

-transition into adulthood is not marked by discrete events. Individualism dominant characteristic.
-When do you become an adult?
-often cited by US 18-25 year olds:
-accept responsibility for self
-independent decisions
-financial independence

goal of descriptive research

-observe and record behavior

Laboratory vs. Naturalistic observation

-Laboratory: controlled.
-Naturalistic: real world

Experiment sampling method

-Random assignment
-Compare experimental and control groups

Mary Carskadon-sleep research

-When your brain considers night to begin, it produces melatonin
-As one develops and gets older, there is a later timing of melatonin production
-Melatonin released about an hour later for adolescents than it was before puberty
-Too little sleep impairs

Example of physiological measure

-EKG for brain waves or saliva sample to analyze amount of stress hormones


-correlation does necessarily=causation
-correlation coefficient: 1.00 to -1.00
-Strength of correlation is what counts
-r is .00 or .3, .00 or -.3 > weak
-r is between .4 &.6 or -.4 & -.6 > moderate
-r is between .7 & .99 or -.7 & -.99 > strong
-A negati

Experimental Research

-Procedure where you control one or more factors
-Random assignment
-compare experimental and control groups
-independent variable- what you control
-dependent variable- the measured outcome

Cross Sectional Research

-studies people all at one time

Independent variable

what you control

Dependent variable

the measured outcome

Longitudinal research

-studies same people over several years or more

Correlational Research

-Goal: describe strength of relationship between two or more events/characteristics

Experimental research

Involves an experiment, a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant

Social Norms Theory

-What you believe about whats normative impacts your behavior.
-social norms influence behavior
-misperceptions exist, can increase problems
-It predicts that in the topic of college age drinking: Since it is the norm to drink a lot, more kids will drink

How hormone levels compare in males and females across pubertal stages

-Both girls and boys contain the hormones testosterone and estradiol
-For boys and girls, both the hormones increase through puberty
-For boys, testosterone increases more than girls as puberty develops
-For girls, estradiol increases more than boys as pu

Negative feedback system of sex hormones

-It kicks off hormones and reigns it back when puberty seems to be at right level
-Starts with Hypothalamus and then a message is sent to the pituitary glands and then sent to the gonads to increase hormones (androgen and estrogen) an that is when puberty

Main class male sex hormones


main class female sex hormones


Growth spurt

-Individual variations in timing
-Santrock: males 10-13.5, females 9-15
-Girls gain hip width, boys gain shoulder width (associated with hormones)
-Facial structure changes
-Age at menarche currently ~12.5 in U.S.
-"secular trend of menarche" its a trend

Adrenarche vs. Gonadarche

-Involves hormonal changes in the adrenal glands, ~6-10 years of age
-Begins ~2 years later. What we consider puberty.

Menarche vs. spermarche

-spermarche: a boys first ejaculation of semen
-menarche: a girls first menstrual period
*marks the start of puberty

what does research say about a girl or boy that experiences puberty early

-correlations found with behavior including smoking, drinking, and early sexual experiences
-Also positive perceived peer relations at the time. Tend to report positive satisfaction with their social life.
-Why is this?
-kids who reach puberty earlier, ha

What does it mean when development in adolescence can be asynchronous

-everything doesn't grow at the same rate, "asynchronous"
-things aren't changing at same pace throughout body and this leads to awkwardness

What trend in timing of menarche is happening?

-"secular trend of menarche" > its a trend overtime and the trend is that puberty is declining.
-age at menarche currently ~12.5 in U.S.


Not everything on an individual grows at the same time

What changes happen with myelination and the connections between neurons in adolescence?

myelination increases in adolescence, synapses increase until late adolescence

difference between amygdala and prefrontal cortex

amygdala=social emotional network (processes rewards, remodeled in early adolescence)
prefrontal cortex= cognitive control network (gradually matures into young adulthood, takes a while to catch up to amygdala)

Steinberg: explain why young people take risks

risk taking is the product of a competition between the socioemotional and cognitive-control networks and adolescence is a period in which the socioemotional is more progressed than the cognitive-control network and there for causes irrational decisions

elkind view on adolescent and risks

argued the feelings of invulnerability are a byproduct of adolescent egocentrism; is an inevitable consequence of cognitive development. general view of adolescence and attribute adolescent risk taking to inevitable feelings of invincibility.

youtube video about boy smoking

social norm theory could describe because he thinks that smoking will make him look cool and make him fit in(misperception) people gave him praising comments below video which increases the problem behavior

What is the difference between the amygdala & prefrontal cortex & when they develop?

- The later development of the prefrontal cortex combined w/ the early maturity of the amygdala may explain the difficulty younger adolescents have in putting the brakes on their risk-taking adventures
- These developmental changes in the brain provide on


-main structure involved in emotion in the brain
o Set of emotions such as anger
o Develops quickly before other regions that help to control it

Prefrontal cortex

-the brain's highest level that is involved in reasoning, decision making, & self-control; the "judgement" region; area that reins in intense emotions
o Matures much later than the amygdala
o Doesn't finish developing until at least age 20

What does Steinberg say about cognitive development & risk-taking? What does he say about "socioemotional network" & "cognitive-control network" & why are they important? (article & notes)

-Logical reasoning abilities of 15-year-olds are comparable to those of adults, adolescents are no worse than adults at perceiving risk or estimating their vulnerability to it
-Age differences in actual risk taking are due to differences in the informatio

Imaginary audience

-David Elkind
-Everyone notices little things about you (thinking they are thinking about it)
-Feeling on stage
-Thinking thinking about what you're thinking thinking about what others are thinking about you
-Example: adolescent girl thinking everyone in

Personal Fable

-David Elkind
-Sense of extreme uniqueness
-Ex: "other people will grow old & die, but not you."
-"No one can understand how I really feel"
-Frequently show up in adolescent diaries
-Ex: an adolescent girl thinks that her mother cannot possibly sense the


-Thinking about thinking
-Cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing
-Adolescents have an increased capacity to monitor & manage cognitive resources to effectively meet the demands of a learning task
-Metacognitive skills have been taught to stud

David Elkind says that adolescents become egocentric�why does he say that, & what does he mean by "imaginary audience" and "personal fable"?

-There is a heightened self-consciousness due to cognitive development
-Difficulty distinguishing what "I feel about myself" & "what others feel about me"
-They have trouble seeing outside themselves
-Elkind argued that the imaginary audience & personal f

What does Lapsley say about "invulnerability" & how is it different from what Elkind believes?

-Elkind says invulnerability is a problem we are waiting to go away will do bad things b/c we think we're so different from everyone else
-Lapsley's "two faces" view�related to separation�individuation process, can be adaptive ( a good thing) & problemati

How does self-concept change from school age to adolescence (abstraction, idealism, differentiation). For example, how might adolescents describe themselves, compared w/ the way younger children describe themselves?

-Self-concept: domain-specific evaluation; concept of self in certain domains (academics, athletics, etc.)
-School-age think more concrete; adolescents think more abstract
-School age will say something like, "I am like this." Adolescents will say somethi


when I'm with my friends, I'm really outgoing, but when I'm with strangers I'm shy"
o Note variations in self
o Adolescents are more likely than children to understand that they possess several different selves, each one varying to some degree according


changing aspects in self from moment to moment; realizing you can switch from cheerful to anxious to sarcastic

Barometric self

adolescents can fluctuate the way that they think of themselves; can become more stable
o The self continues to be characterized by instability until late adolescence or even early adulthood

Possible self

o What they might become
o What they dread becoming
o ...good or problematic
o What individuals might become, what they would like to become, & what they are afraid of becoming

True vs. False self (what it is, why it is used, who adolescents are most/least likely to show it to?)

- False self
o A self that adolescents present to others but recognize does not represent what they actually are feeling/thinking
o Why? Santrock lists:
To impress others
Trying roles to find identity
Don't think others understand true self
o Most likely

Importance of "social comparison" in adolescence

- Adolescents may use more social comparison when evaluating self, but may not want to admit that (may see social comparison as undesirable)
- They will say something like "I don't care what anyone says/thinks about me" but they just don't want to let you

Two types of self-consciousness that increase during early adolescence

1) Public
2) Private
-Both tend to be high in early-mid adolescence
-If feeling this way, adolescents often turn to friends as main source of self-appraisal


about appearance, actions
o Self-conscious about what others see/hear
o What others are thinking about you
o About something observable


about thoughts, emotions
o Being self-conscious about why you worry about what others think
o Being self-conscious about your thoughts
o If you're thinking the right thing
o Been wonders if he thinks about girls too much

******** I showed results from two studies on adolescents' self?contradictions (when they have opposite or conflicting self?concepts). In general, what did they find - what grade did opposite and opposing self?concepts peak at? Did researchers find it was

-Opposite & opposing self-concepts peaked in 9th grade (self-conflict highest in 9th grade)
-Conflict rises after 7th grade; peaks in 9th grade; & decreases/goes down in 11th (come to a sense of who they are)
-Bad for adolescent girls to have big discrepa


-AKA self-worth, self-image
- Global evaluative dimension of overall worth, well-being
- How you view yourself overall
-"I'm a good person


-Domain-specific evaluation
-Concept of self in certain domains (academics, athletics, etc.)
-Has to do with how you think about yourself in a specific area
-You can have a high concept of yourself in one specific domain & a low self-concept of yourself i

Is self-esteem low in adolescence? (complicated answer)

-Take all scores & average them-->they are lower (it does decrease)
-BUT there might be a group that does increase (have high self-esteems)-->
group w/ lowest scores (biggest decline) bring the mean (average) scores down
-Depends on how you measure it

What does Harter say about the relationship between self-concept & self-esteem? What domains of self-concept did she find most highly correlated with self-esteem during adolescence?

-Self-esteem is getting a bad rep. BUT we see it as critical
-Low self-esteem associated w/ depression/suicide
-Adolescents starting to have different concepts/perspectives of self
-Have different self of worth in different domains--->might feel good abou

How does Harter suggest improving self-esteem?

-Focus on domain-->identify domains that are keeping self-esteem low & focus on those
-Support, achievement-->give support in that domain(s) that's low & help them gain achievement in that domain(s)

What does Jean Twenge say about self-esteem & today's youth? How do her ideas differ from Harter's view & Arnett's view? What might Twenge & Harter agree on?

-Twenge thinks kids are empty praised & now everything is "about me" in this generation
-kids were empty praised and as a consequence, they have inflated self-esteem
-too often they were given praise for performance that was mediocre or even poor. Now in

What does Erikson says adolescence is a time for?

-Adolescence is a time of identity exploration
Time to:
-search, explore, try roles
-Establish stable sense of self, find place in society
-Establish autonomy & connectedness to society

Psychological moratorium

-gap between childhood security, adult autonomy; trying out different things, pushing the rules; a time to try out choices before reaching stable sense of self
- "a period of delay granted to somebody who is not ready to meet an obligation"
- "selective p

How does the stage of identity versus identity confusion relate to the stages before and after it? What does Erikson mean by "identity crisis" and "identity confusion?

-Identity vs. role confusion: might involve withdrawing, losing identity in the crowd
o Establish who you are as an individual & how you fit in w/ rest of world
-Identity crisis: young people construct their identity
-Identity confusion: involves failure

What does James Marcia mean by "crisis" and "commitment?" (pages 143-145)

-Crisis (whether or not you have questioned it & looked at the different options): adolescent is choosing among meaningful alternatives (options)
-AKA exploration
-Commitment (you can say "here's where I stand"): adolescents show a personal investment in

Identity diffusion

crisis is absent and commitment is absent
-"I don't know"
-Not yet experienced an identity crisis (that is, have not yet explored meaningful alternatives) or made any commitments
-not only are adolescents in this status undecided about occupational & ideo

Identity foreclosure

crisis is absent, commitment is present
-Made a commitment, but have not experienced a crisis
-"going to be an author, never questioned it"
-this status occurs most often when parents hand down commitments to their adolescents, usually in an authoritarian

Identity moratorium

crisis is present, commitment is absent
- In midst of a crisis, but commitments are absent or vaguely defined
-Ex: 19-year-old Sasha is not quite sure what life path she wants to follow, but she recently went to the counseling center at her college to fin

Identity achievement

crisis was present AND commitment was present
- Have undergone a crisis & made a commitment
- Someone explored options & made a commitment
-Ex: 21-year-old Marcelo extensively explored a number of different career options in college; eventually got his de

What is the difference between identity foreclosure and identity diffusion? In other words, how could you tell if someone was in one of them instead of the other one?

-Identity foreclosure--> crisis absent, commitment present
o Someone who is an adolescent has always said they are going to be an author (teacher, doctor, etc.) and they have never second guessed it/ questioned it
o This status occurs most often when pare

Kroger's meta-analysis in identity development, identity development in college, MAMA cycles (p.146-147)

-During adolescence & emerging adulthood, identity moratorium status rose steadily to age 19 & then declined; identity achievement rose across late adolescence & emerging adulthood; & foreclosure & diffusion statuses declined across the high school years

Leading causes of death among adolescents

- Three leading causes of death in adolescence & emerging adults:
1. Accidents
2. Homicide
3. Suicide
- Almost half of all deaths from 15-24 years of age are due to unintentional injuries
o Approx. 3/4ths of them involving motor vehicle accidents
- Risky

What changes happen with myelination, connections between neurons, neurotransmitters in adolescence?

-During myelination the axon is insulated which increases efficiency of info processing & that's increased during adolescence. The neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry information across synaptic gap. Improvements w/ memory & info. processing: 1) co

What is hypothetical-deductive reasoning? What theorist talked about that? Who has it?

Piaget says that they develop hypotheses or best guesses, and systematically deduce, or conclude, which is the best path to follow in solving the problem. occurs in young adults ages (11-15)

Piaget's stage of formal operations - What does Piaget say is different about adolescent thinking than younger children - what can they do now?

Individuals move beyond concrete experiences and begin to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available, as well as apply all these processes to hypothetical situations

In general, how does the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research recommend using the possible selves to improve academic achievement?

Interventions that help students develop vivid, compelling visions of their "hoped for", "feared", and "expected" possible selves can be expected to promote achievement by enhancing students' motivation

I showed studies by Strauman and Honarmand. Do they believe that the true:ideal self gap can be changed? Why would someone try to do that? How does Honarmand say it can be done?

discovered that actual-self versus ideal-self discrepancy was associated with: feelings of disappointment, dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness, blameworthiness, and feeling of interest in things (this is depression)
Results of cognitive therapy show that the

What did Tolman say about authenticity in adolescent girls?

girls who increased in authenticity also tended to increase in self-esteem over the course of adolescence

Adolescent and parent changes that impact the parent/adolescent relationship

Puberty, expanded logical reasoning, increased idealistic thoughts, violated expectations, changes in schooling/social networks and their importance, moves towards independence.

Distancing hypothesis

a person establishes their own individuality through understanding their separateness from everything around them

The relationship between marital satisfaction and having an adolescent (compared with having a younger or older child)

Marital dissatisfaction is higher among parents with adolescents because there are more economic burdens

Changes in parent-adolescent conflict and causes of conflict

Misconception - adolescents and parents vastly disagree
i. Conflict rises with puberty, decreases in late adolescence

Frequency of parent?adolescent conflict, percentage who have problematic conflict

1) Study - adolescents report an average of 1 argument every 3 days, 11 minutes each
2) Beliefs on achievement, career, religion, politics, etc.
3) Most conflict involves daily events (room, curfew, phone, etc.)
4) ~ 20% prolonged, repeated, unhealthy con

Violated expectations

When adolescents stop accepting what was once expected of them, parents feel as though their expectations have been violated.i.e. Child always does homework right after school but now wants to watch tv first

Laurence Steinberg's view on adolescent?parent relationships

Arguments are a learning opportunity, conflicts are good, parental warmth is important

Changes in self?disclosing conversations from 2nd grade to college (research by Buhrmester)

1) Young children are more likely to disclose information to their parents than they are once they get older and move toward independence and individuation
i. Drops with parents from 5th-10th grade
ii. Rises with friends from 5th-10th grade
iii. Begins to

What Youniss found about disclosure with parents and peers ? who adolescents prefer to talk with about topics.

Adolescents talk to parents about:School, career goals, hopes, plans for the future
Adolescents talk to peers about:marriage, views on sex, problems with opposite sex, feelings about opposite sex

Four parenting styles (by Baumrind, presented by Zehra) - be able to identify by definition and example

Authoritarian- establish the rules and expect that children will follow them without exception.
Authoritative- have rules that children are expected to follow, however, they allow some exceptions to the rule.
Uninvolved- often do not meet their children's

parents as managers

manage adolescent's opportunities, monitor social relationships, social initiators/arrangers

peer vs. friend

Peer: Age, maturity level, global concept
Friend: Mutual companionship

Time spent w/peers vs. family in adolescence (vs. earlier in life)

Time spent with peers increases in adolesence

Changes in meaning of friends from childhood to adolescence

Play to companionship to reassurance to intimacy
7 year old description: not very deep, based on play
11 year old: kind of deep, likes/dislikes
Adolescent: looks for people who are similar
Age 15: they give "friend" a deeper meaning

Peer conformity

Adopt attitudes/behaviors due to real or imagined pressure. This becomes more peer influenced from childhood to adolescence for both pro- and antisocial behavior. Peaks in 8th grade.

What does Dunphy say about cliques and crowds?

Crowd: Reputation based, larger and looser based on shared characteristics
Clique: small, tight knit group, less than 10 people
Crowds become more differentiated, less influential

Dunphy's (1963) model of male/female social group development

Stage 1: Same-sex group
Stage 2: Boy/girl groups spend time together
Stage 3: groups break down, leaders form mixed-sex relationships
Stage 4: Other members follow, mixed-sex groups replace same-sex groups
Stage 5: male/female pair for more serious relati

Social cognition

How people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations. Adolescents have more social knowledge than children.

hostile attribution bias

Naturally aggressive children are more likely to see others actions as hostile.

Kenneth Dodge's research on social cognition

social cognition- how social events are interpreted
Decode social cues
Response search
select response

Nicki Crick's research on "relational aggression

Girls more commonly experience relational aggression than boys. Relatively high relational aggression can link to cigarette/drinking/drug use, weight problems, depression, romantic relationship issues

How common is bullying? Who is likely to be bullied? What kinds of bullying are most common?

1 in 3 students will be bullied
Outsiders, weak most likely at risk
Belittled about looks/speech, sexual harassment most common types of bullying among both boys and girls

What method do Weissberg & Caplan recommend for improving social relations?

Calm down and think
State how you feel
Set postive goal
Think of solutions
Plan for consequences
Try best plan

What is bullying?

Verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful" (Santrock)

Who is likely to bully - ind. and social environmental factors (Espelage)

Individual: Angry, supportive beliefs
Environmental: peers that act out, adult models

How to reduce bullying - interventions and approaches discussed in class

1) Peers as monitors
2) Parents - reinforce, model, use counselors
3) Friendship groups, social skills training
Olweus 30-70% decrease "Bullying circle"
A. Students who bully
B. Followers
C. Supporters
D. Passive supporters
E. Disengaged onlookers
F. Poss

Outcomes associated with bullying

Bullying and victim effects: suicide ideation, attempts, health problems, depressive symptoms
Other victim effects: lack of school engagement, sleep, suicide attempts, smoking initation

Parent changes that impact the parent/ adolescent relationship

1) Marital dissatisfaction
2) Economic burdens
3) Reevaluation of the self

How does friendship change as kids move into adolescence

1) Move from:
2) Play partner
i. To
3) Companionship, reassurance, intimacy (pg. 304)
4) "I can tell my friends anything"
5) "They accept me for who I really am

How common is bullying? Who is likely to be bullied? What kinds of bullying are the most common?

1) 1/3 of 6-10 graders experienced occasional or frequent bullying as victim or perpetrator
3) Belittling looks or speech or making someone the subject of sexual comments or gestures