Exam 2 Kine 3080

increases proportionally

False

True

oxygen deficit

Less

Muscle glycogen metabolism is disproportionally high

when exercise intensity is high

replenishes NADH stores in mitochondria

fewer

False

How does heat buildup in muscle contribute to fatigue?

hastens glycogen depletion

True

Oxygen deficit is incurred when

O2 demand > O2 consumption in early exercise

True

Carbohydrate oxidation yields _______ ATP per molecule of oxygen consumed when compared to ATP yield per oxygen molecule for fat.

more

True

True

True

Epinephrine is secreted by the adrenal cortex and plays a key role in physical recovery after exercise.

False

Glucagon is a potent glucocorticoid that promotes mobilization of stored fuel substrates and exerts anti-inflammatory effects.

False

The anterior pituitary, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and pancreas are the major endocrine glands responsible for regulating metabolism.

True

True

renin

ADH

Steroid hormones can diffuse through the cell membranes and attach to receptors located somewhere inside the cell.

True

Erythropoietin release is the primary stimulus for

red blood cell production

True

During exercise, growth hormone ___________ the release of free fatty acids and ____________ the uptake of cellular glucose.

increases, decreases

Blood osmolality is sensed by the

Which of these glands is not associated with steroid hormone production?

adrenal medulla

False

lipid soluble

The primary purpose of ADH is to promote

water retention

Which of these is a consequence of low plasma volume?

heart strain increases

Which of the following pairs of hormones typically act in opposition?

insulin, glucagon

cellular FFA uptake increases

The posterior pituitary is controlled by

hypothalamic nerve signals

Why do plasma glucose concentrations start to decline after prolonged endurance exercise?

Renin is released when the

kidneys sense low blood volume and pressure

True

Growth hormone (secreted by the adrenal gland) is a potent catabolic agent, stimulating breakdown of glucose during exercise.

False

During exercise, glucagon concentrations _________, and insulin concentrations __________.

increase, decrease

The level of a given hormone's activity is determined solely by its plasma concentration.

False

erythropoietin

liver cells

The anterior pituitary is controlled by

hypothalamic hormones

The primary means by which hormones maintain homeostasis is via

negative feedback

Aldosterone release leads to

Na+ retention followed by water retention

Aldosterone

False

False

Type II fibers

have more fibers per motor unit

Immobilization primarily affects

Type I fibers

False

Muscle contraction that results in a change in joint angle is called

False

What is the minimum percent of the 1-repetition maximum necessary in order to produce muscle hypertrophy?

30%

Protein synthesis ___________ during exercise and ____________ after exercise.

Strength losses after immobilization are greatest during the ___________.

Type I muscle fibers

have a high oxidative capacity

_____________ training is critical in developing fiber hypertrophy.

Eccentric

Which type of contraction primarily occurs in the quadriceps (muscle on front of thigh) as a person descends a flight of stairs?

Eccentric

True

The most common fiber type alteration with heavy resistance training is

False

True

In general, whole-muscle hypertrophy in humans most likely results from

Age tends to increase the number of type ____ fibers and decrease the number of type ____ fibers.

When motor units contract more synchronously,

Which of these statements is true about leg muscle fibers from an Olympic sprinter versus an Olympic marathon runner?

The amount of force generated by similar-sized muscle fibers is similar.

False

True

They appear white under a microscope.

True

During concentric contractions, increasing the speed of contraction will

Tetanus

speed of myosin ATPase

ATP is required for

both muscle contraction and muscle relaxation

According to the size principle, which motor unit will be recruited first for a task?

As intensity increases, in which order are fibers recruited?

type I, type IIa, type IIx

Norepinephrine concentrations increase at _____________ exercise intensities, and epinephrine concentrations increase at ______________ exercise intensities.

Glycogen is stored in which region of a muscle fiber?

Resistance training can lead to the conversion of ________ fibers into _____ fibers.

weakness

Absolute strength gains are typically greatest in

men

True

True